Development Processes


To prepare for GOVERNANCE  for any competitive exam, aspirants have to know about Development Processes. It gives an idea of all the important topics for the IAS Exam and the Governance syllabus (GS-II.). Development Processes terms are important from Governance perspectives in the UPSC exam. IAS aspirants should thoroughly understand their meaning and application, as questions can be asked from this static portion of the IAS Syllabus in both the UPSC Prelims and the UPSC Mains exams. Even these topics are also highly linked with current affairs. Almost every question asked from them is related to current events. So, apart from standard textbooks, you should rely on newspapers and news analyses as well for these sections.


Development and Development Process:

  • A multitude of meanings have been attached to the term development. It is mostly confounded with economic growth. Also, larger meanings such as social development, sustainable development and human development are attributed to it.
  • In simple terms, Development is ‘bringing about social change that allows people to achieve their human potential’.
  • It is referred to as the quantitative and qualitative changes in economy and social sectors such as development of human capital, critical infrastructure, regional competitiveness, environmental sustainability, social inclusion, health, safety, literacy etc.


According to Michael Todaro “Economic development is an increase in living standards improvement in self-esteem needs and freedom from oppression as well as a greater choice.”


Dimensions of Development:

  • Development as a political process – It is the something that is done by some agency (state or development organization) for others. It is called political process as it raises questions about who has the power to do what to whom.
  • Human Development – Amartya Sen is supporter of this school. He considers economic growth as measure of development a deeply flawed and inadequate approach. His capability approach focuses on the wellbeing of those at bottom of the society, not on the efficiency of those at the top.
  • Sustainable Development – Sustainable development as development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. This definition first time given in Our Common Future”, also called Brundtland Report To achieve it, UN has established Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) – a wide ranging targets – to be achieved by 2030. The goals and targets are universal, meaning they apply to all countries around the world, not just poor countries.
  • Economic Development – Economic development is the process by which a nation improves the economic, political, and social well-being of its people.
  • Social Development – Social development means investing in people. It requires the removal of barriers so that all citizens can journey toward their dreams with confidence and dignity.


According to Sen, Development consists of the removal of various types of unfreedoms that leave people with little choice and little opportunity of exercising their reasoned agency.