|DEFENCE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ORGANISATION (DRDO)||· DRDO is the R&D wing of Ministry of Defence, Government of India.
· Established in 1958.
|DEFENSE INNOVATION ORGANISATION||· It is a ‘not for profit’ company registered under Section 8 of the Companies Act 2013.
· Its two founding members are Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) & Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) – Defence Public Sector Undertakings (DPSUs).
|N Chandrasekharan||2018||To study implications of AI in national security.|
|Shetkar Committee||2015||To suggest measures to enhance combat capability and rebalance defence expenditure of the armed forces.|
|Defence Artificial Intelligence Project Agency (DAIPA)||2019||It aims for greater impetus on Artificial Intelligence in Defence.|
India’s Nuclear Doctrine
- India conducted its first nuclear test in 1974 and the second nuclear test in 1998.
- India declared herself a nuclear weapon state in 1998 and came forward with Nuclear Doctrine in 2003.
- India’s Nuclear Doctrine consist of the following major points:
- Credible Minimum Deterrence.
- No First Use policy i.e., India will use the weapon only in retaliation to a nuclear attack on Indian territory or against Indian forces anywhere.
- Nuclear Command Authority-Retaliatory attacks will be authorized only by the civilian political leadership
- Nuclear weapons will not be used against non-nuclear weapon states.
- Massive Retaliation.
- A three-sided military-force structure consisting of land-launched nuclear missiles, nuclear-missile-armed submarines, and strategic aircraft with nuclear bombs and missiles.
|Land Based||Agni; Agni-I; Agni-II; Agni III; Agni-IV; ICBM – Agni-V; SLBM – Sagarika (K-15); Cruise – Brahmos Supersonic etc.|
|Sea Based||Arihant class submarine|
|Air Based||Mig-27 ETC|
A missile is an intelligent unmanned rocket designed to carry the payload to a designated point with an aim of destroying the object/target.
|Type of Propulsion||Features|
|Solid propulsion||· Solid fuel used, mostly aluminium powder.
· Can be easily stored.
· Reach high speed quickly.
|Liquid Propulsion||· Liquid fuel used, i.e., hydrocarbons.
· Storage difficult and complex.
· Can be controlled easily.
|Ramjet||· No turbines
· Fuel injected and ignited.
· Cannot propel aerial vehicle to supersonic speeds.
· It is a type of air breathing engine.
· the combustion chamber – where the air is mixed with fuel and ignited – only works at subsonic speeds. So, the intake slows the air down, releasing some of its energy as a shock wave, but this reduces fuel efficiency.
|Scramjet||· Supersonic combustion ramjet.
· Combustion at supersonic velocities.
· Hydrogen fuel used.
· It is a type of air breathing engine.
· India is fourth country apart from USA, Russia and ESA to demonstrate this technology.
· The combustion chamber is specially designed to operate with supersonic airflow.
|Cryogenic||· Liquified gases at very low temp. e.g. Liquid hydrogen.
· Need insulated containers and vents.
· No air intake is required.
· India is sixth country apart from USA, Russia, France, japan, china to have this technology.
BALLISTIC AND CRUISE MISSILES
|Ballistic Missile||Cruise Missile|
|It is propelled only for a brief duration after the launch. It depends on gravity to reach its target.||Self-propelled till the end of its flight.|
|Fixed target and parabolic path||Moving target and no fixed path|
|They leave the earth’s atmosphere(Exosphere)and re-enter it.||They remain within the earth’s atmosphere- Endosphere|
|Low precision as trajectory depends on gravity, air resistance and Coriolis Force.||High precision|
|Can have a very long range (300 km to 12,000 km)||The range is small (below 500 km)|
|Heavy payload carrying capacity.||Payload capacity is limited.|
|Developed primarily to carry nuclear warheads.||Developed primarily to carry conventional warheads.|
|E.g. Prithvi I, II, Agni I,II and Dhanush, Prahaar, Prithvi and Trishul etc.||E.g. BrahMos missiles|
|Types of ballistic missiles based on range:
1. Short range ballistic missile (SRBM)- 300 to 1000 KM
2. Medium range (MRBM)- 1000-3500 KM
3. Intermediate range (IRBM)- 3500-5500 KM
4. Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM)- 5500 KM
|Types of cruise missiles based on speed:
1. Hypersonic (Mach 5): speed is five times the speed of sound (Mach 5).
2. Supersonic (Mach 2-3): speed is faster than the speed of sound.
3. Subsonic (Mach 0.8): speed is slower than the speed of sound.
INDIAN MISSILE SYSTEM
Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme (IGMDP):
- It was conceived by Dr. A P J Abdul Kalam to enable India attain self-sufficiency in missile technology, in response to the Missile Technology Control Regime.
- IGMDP was started in 1983 and completed in March 2012.
- It developed 5 types of missiles under it.
|AGNI||· It is an intercontinental surface-to-surface, nuclear capable ballistic missile developed by DRDO.
· At present, US, China, Russia, UK, France and Israel are known to have ICBMs.
· It has been equipped with very high accuracy.
· Ring Laser Gyro based Inertial Navigation System (RINS) and Micro Navigation System (MINS).
|PRITHVI||· Tactical surface-to-surface short range ballistic missile.
· First missile developed under IGMDP in 1983.
· Uses either liquid or both liquid and solid fuels and are capable of carrying conventional as well as nuclear warhead.
· Prithvi I- Army version-150 km range
· Prithvi II- Air force version-350 km range
· Prithvi III- Naval version-600 km range
|TRISHUL||· Short range surface-to-air missile for Indian Navy used for Immediate combat action.
· Range – 9km.
· Currently not in service.
|NAG||· Anti-tank missile.
· Range – 4km.
· 3rd generation ‘fire and forget’ guided missile where the target is identified and designated before the weapon is launched.
· It is an all-weather condition with day and night capabilities.
· Launched from land and air-based platforms.
|AKASH||· Group of 4 medium range surface-to-air missile with a radar called Rajendra.
· Multi-target engagement capacity. Radar detects incoming objects and missiles are fired.
· Range – 30 km. Altitudes up to 18000m.
· Already in use.
|BRAHMOS MISSILE SYSTEM||
|PINAKA MISSILE SYSTEM||
|Anti-satellite weapons (ASAT)
AIR DEFENCE SYSTEMS
Indian Ballistic Missile Defence Programme:
- India’s BMD development began in 1999, after the Kargil war.
- It is a two-tiered defence system and will be able to intercept any incoming missile launched 5,000 km away.
- Prithvi Air Defence (PAD): It’s designed for High altitude interception (exo-atmospheric interception).
- Advanced Air Defence (AAD): It’s endo-atmospheric interception system (for low altitude interception).
ANTI-BALLISTIC MISSILE SYSTEMS:
|S-400 TRIUMF MISSILE SYSTEM||Russia -It is a mobile, surface-to-air missile system .|
|THAAD-Terminal High Altitude Area Defense system||US- a transportable, ground-based|
|Iron Dome Aerial Defence System||Israel|
|Nuclear-powered||· Gets energy from nuclear reactor so can stay submerged in water for months.
· Difficult for enemy to detect.
· Can float near territorial waters of enemy nation.
· Provide excellent second-striking capability
· SSN: submersible ship nuclear-powered-specifically designed for attacking and sinking other submarines/ships. Generally, do not carry long range missiles.
· SSBN: submersible ship Ballistic Nuclear-Powered-have the capability to deploy submarine launched ballistic missiles with nuclear warheads.
|Diesel-powered||· Come on waterbody surface after regular intervals because burning of diesel needs oxygen
· Easy for enemy to detect
· Can’t float near territorial waters of enemy nation
· Don’t possess that advantage
|Attack Submarines||· Generally small submarines designed for specific tasks, which include attack on enemy in combat.
· It uses torpedoes and other small range missiles.
· These submarines have limited range and need to come out of the water after some time.
|Ballistic Missile Submarines||· Bigger in size and are more destructive for the enemy.
· It is used as a launch platform for ballistic or long-range missiles.
· These can carry nuclear warheads.
· These submarines are nuclear powered submarines. As a result, have almost unlimited range because of availability of unlimited power supply.
· These can remain under water for months and can travel up to thousand miles.
|Nuclear-powered submarines (3)|
|Chakra (Akula II) class||Attack submarine (SSN)||INS Chakra||Russia|
|Arihant class||Ballistic missile submarine (SSBN)||INS Arihant
|Diesel-electric submarines (14)|
|Shishumar class||Attack submarine||INS Shishumar
|Kalvari class||Attack submarine||INS Kalvari
|Sindhughosh class||Attack submarine||INS Sindhughosh
PROJECTS BY NAVY:
|PROJECT 75||· Part of a 30-year submarine building plan from 2007 upto 2030.
· This project envisages the construction of six conventional submarines with better sensors and weapons and the Air Independent Propulsion System (AIP)- Kalvari, Khanderi, Karanj, Vela, Vagir and Vagsheer.
|PROJECT 28||· Under this 4 Anti-Submarine Warships have to be built indigenously in India.
· Four corvettes- INS Kamorta, INS Kadmatt, INS Kiltan and INS Kavaratti.
· The warships are named after the islands in the Lakshadweep archipelago.
|PROJECT 17A||· Involves the building of seven stealth frigates.|
INITIATIVES TO MODERNISE DEFENCE INDUSTRY:
|Strategic Partnership (SP) Model||· It identifies a few Indian private companies who would initially tie up with global Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) to seek technology transfers to set up domestic manufacturing infrastructure and supply chains.|
|iDEX||· Launched in 2018.
· Aims to promote innovation and technology development in Defence and Aerospace by engaging Industries (which includes MSMEs, start-ups, individual innovators, R&D institutes & academia)with funding and other support to carry out Research & Development.
· It will be funded and managed by Defence Innovation Organization (DIO) and will function as the executive arm of DIO.
- Raising the sectoral cap of foreign direct investment (FDI) (automatic approval) from the existing 49% to 74%.
- A negative list for the import of defence equipment in India- means that the Armed Force will only procure all of these 101 items from domestic manufacturers.
- Corporatization of the Ordnance Factory Board (OFB) and Defence industrial corridors in Tamil Nadu and UP.
- SRIJAN portal for domestic vendors- one stop shop online portal that will give information on items that can be taken up for indigenization by the private sector.
- Naval Innovation and Indigenization Organisation (NIIO) has been launched by the Defence Minister of India.
- Objective– To foster innovation and indigenization for self-reliance in defence in keeping with the vision of Atma Nirbhar Bharat.
- Mission Raksha Gyan Shakti -to promote a culture of innovation and technology development and for promoting the creation of Intellectual Property in the sector and its commercial utilisation.
- Proposed to det up two defence corridors at Uttar Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.
- Defence corridors are refers to a route or path along which domestic production of defence equipment by public sector, private to enhance the defence capability.
New Defence Acquisition Procedure of 2020 (DAP 2020)
- DAP 2020 will govern the procurement of defence equipment from the capital budget.
- It superseded the Defence Procurement Procedure of 2016.
- Reservation in Categories for Indian Vendors– Some categories like Buy (Indian Indigenously Designed Developed and Manufactured -IDDM), Production Agency in Design & Development etc. will be exclusively reserved for Indian Vendors.
- Overall Greater indigenous content requirement:
|Category||DPP 2016||DAP 2020|
|Buy (Indian-DMM)||Min 40%||Min 50%|
|Buy (Indian)||Min 40%||Indigenous Design – Min 50%
otherwise – Min 60%
|Buy and Make (Indian)||Min 50% of Make||Min 50% of Make|
|Buy (Global – Manufacture in India)||category does not exist||Min 50% of Buy plus Make|
|Buy (Global)||category does not exist||Min 30% for Indian Vendors|
- Measuring indigenous content- Indigenous content will now be calculated on ‘Base Contract Price’–Total Contract Price, less taxes and duties.
- Import embargo list
- Offset liability-The government has decided not to have an offset clause in procurement of defence equipment if the deal is done through inter-government agreement (IGA), government-to-government, single vendor.
- Leasing introduced as a new category for acquisition in addition to the existing ‘Buy’ and ‘Make’ categories so that periodical rental payments are made instead of huge capital investment.
UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE
- Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV)/Drones are a class of aircrafts that can fly without the onboard presence of pilots.
- There are three subsets of Unmanned Aircraft- Remotely Piloted Aircraft, Autonomous Aircraft and Model Aircraft.
- Some UAV used by Indian Military are: DRDO Abhyas; DRDO Fluffy; DRDO Imperial Eagle; DRDO Kapothaka; DRDO Lakshya; DRDO Netra; DRDO Nishant; DRDO Rustom & Rustom II; DRDO Ulka.
INDIA DRONE REGULATIONS:
- India has a ‘No Permission-No Takeoff’ (NPNT) clause, which implies that a drone cannot be operated in Indian skies unless the regulatory permission is received through the Digital Sky Platform
- Registration is required for all but the Nano category.
- Drone Categories in India:
- Nano: Less than or equal to 250 grams
- Micro: From 250 grams to 2 kg
- Small: From 2 kg to 25 kg
- Medium: From 25 kg to 150 kg
- Large: Greater than 150kg
|Definition||· A Chemical Weapon is a chemical used to cause intentional death or harm through its toxic properties. Equipment specifically designed to weaponize toxic chemicals also fall under this definition.|
|Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC)
|· CWC is a multilateral treaty that bans chemical weapons and requires their destruction within a specified period of time.
· It is implemented by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW)
· Three states have neither signed nor ratified the convention are Egypt, North Korea and South Sudan.
|Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW)||· Headquarter-Hague, Netherlands.
· OPCW was established by the Chemical Weapons Convention, 1997 to implement and enforce the terms of the non-proliferation treaty.
· It is authorized to perform inspections, perform testing of sites and victims of suspected chemical weapons attacks to verify that signatory states are complying with the convention.
· OPCW won the 2013 Nobel peace prize.
|Chemical weapons and India||· India ratified the CWC in 1996.
· As a state party to the CWC India enacted Chemical Weapons Convention Act in 2000.
· National Authority Chemical Weapons Convention (NACWC) has been established under the Chemical Weapons Convention Act, 2000 for implementing the provisions of the Convention
|Chemical agents in news||· Chlorine gas – Choking agent
· Sarin gas – Nerve agent.
· Novichok -Nerve Agent- 5-8 times more lethal than VX nerve agent.
· Cyanide- Blood Agent
· Phosgene, Sulphur Mustard- Blister agents
· VX- very persistent once in the atmosphere, it is slow to evaporate, and thus tends to cause prolonged exposure.
Biological weapons are microorganisms like virus, bacteria, fungi, or other toxins that are produced and released deliberately to cause disease and death in humans, animals or plants. Examples- anthrax, botulinum toxin, Plague, Ricin etc.
|Biological Agents||Chemical Agents|
|Difficult, costly, small-scale production||Large-scale, cheaper, industrial production|
|Odourless and tasteless||Many have noticeable odour or taste. One exception is sarin gas, which is both odourless and tasteless.|
|Disseminated as aerosols in air or in water or food||Disseminated as aerosols or liquids|
|Most won’t penetrate skin||Can penetrate skin|
|Delayed onset of physical effects||Has immediate physical effects|
|Crisis measured in weeks, months||Crisis typically measured in hours, days|
|Delayed response that would build||Immediate, large response for some agents. Delayed for others.|
Biological Weapons Convention (BWC)-
- It is the first multilateral disarmament treaty banning the development, production and stockpiling of an entire category of weapons of mass destruction. BWC entered into force on 26 March 1975.
- India signed the convention in 1973.
- The BWC bans:
- The development, stockpiling, acquisition, retention, and production of:
- Biological agents and toxins “of types and in quantities that have no justification for prophylactic, protective or other peaceful purposes;”
- Weapons, equipment, and delivery vehicles “designed to use such agents or toxins for hostile purposes or in armed conflict.”
The transfer of or assistance with acquiring the agents, toxins, weapons, equipment, and delivery vehicles described above.