Aptitude and Foundational Values for Civil Services

APTITUDE AND FOUNDATIONAL VALUES FOR CIVIL SERVICES

To prepare for ETHICS  for any competitive exam, aspirants have to know about the Aptitude and Foundational Values for Civil Services. It gives an idea of all the important topics for the IAS Exam and the Economy syllabus (GS-IV.). Aptitude and Foundational Values for Civil Services terms are important from Ethical perspectives in the UPSC exam. IAS aspirants should thoroughly understand their meaning and application, as questions can be asked from this static portion of the IAS Syllabus in both the UPSC Prelims and the UPSC Mains exams. Even these topics are also highly linked with current affairs. Almost every question asked from them is related to current events. So, apart from standard textbooks, you should rely on newspapers and news analyses as well for these sections.

 

CIVIL SERVICES IN INDIA:
  • The roots of the civil service go back a long way in human history. The key to the survival of the ancient Egyptian civilisation that flourished as early as 3,000 BC, was the civil service – the historical model of all later bureaucracies.
  • The concept of recruitment based on merit started with China way back in 200BC. In China, the civil servants were recruited on the basis of merit and enjoyed a well-defined career path and security of tenure.
  • Serving the state was considered a great privilege bestowed only on a chosen few with demonstrated talents. The nuclei of intensive modern states in the Middle Ages developed along with bureaucratic structures. Developing a civil service was an essential step in the process of nation-building.

In India, Kautilya’s Arthasastra stipulates seven basic elements of the administrative apparatus. These elements are embodied in the doctrine of the Prakrits. They are:

  • Swamin (the ruler)
  • Amatya (the bureaucracy)
  • Janapada (territory)
  • Durga (the fortified capital)
  • Kosa (the treasury)
  • Danda (the army)
  • Mitra (the ally)

 

EVOLUTION OF CIVIL SERVICES IN INDIA:

 

Ancient

Period

According to Arthasastra, the higher bureaucracy consisted of the mantrins and the amatyas. While the mantrins were the highest advisors to the King, the amatyas were the civil servants.
Medieval Period A new stage in the evolution of the administrative order came at the time of Delhi Sultanate and refined during Mughals based on Mansabdari system and modernised in British rule.
 

 

British administration

The civil service system in India during the British times was based essentially on the Mughal system with certain refinements. But the big changes came with the implementation of Macaulay’s Report. The Macaulay Report recommended that only the best and brightest would do for the Indian Civil Service (ICS). The ICS men were trusted agents of the British Government even though there were also many patriots among them. The ICS was the instrument of the imperial power.

 

PROBLEMS WITH BRITISH (COLONIAL) ADMINISTRATION:

Leaders of the Indian National Congress had made it clear during their struggle for independence that they wanted to abolish the ICS and such similar services after the independence. Yet in the years afterwards, the ICS tradition not only survived, but it also prospered. Nehru was asked at a private meeting by some friends what he considered to be his greatest failure as India’s first Prime Minister. He reportedly replied, ‘I could not change the administration, it is still a colonial administration’.

  • Continuation of that colonial administration ‘was one of the main causes of India’s inability to solve the problem of poverty.
  • Lack of Accountability & transparency in the administration
  • Red-tapism and cynicism
  • Lack of interdepartmental coordination
  • Centralised administration
  • Hierarchy
  • Resist to change and status quo attitude
  • The functioning of the civil service is characterised by a great deal of negativity, lack of responsiveness to what the people want and the dictates of democracy.
  • Most of the civil servants have been socialised to act in a manner that act in a manner of command-and-control methods rather than responds to people’s needs and aspirations.
  • One of the principal reasons for the lack of efficiency in the district collectorate is the marked reluctance on the part of the civil service to accept the changes in control and accountability as well as the altered roles and responsibilities.

It is ironic that there has been no sincere attempt to restructure the civil service although more than six hundred committees and commissions have looked into different aspects of public administration in the country.

 

MEASURES TO IMPROVE ADMINISTRATION:

  • The common experience, however, is that they resist changes as they are wedded to their privileges and prospects and thereby, have become ends in themselves. As instruments of public service, civil servants have to be ready for change.
  • Decentralisation – In the political field, the 73rd and 74th Amendments to the Constitution have brought about major changes. Rural and urban local governments have been enabled to become institutions of self-government. In order to make it meaningful, the existing system of administration of departments and the District Collectorate has to undergo fundamental changes.
  • Inculcate foundational values among the bureaucrats during entry training and mid-career training
  • Promote Emotional intelligence to deal with emotions and conflicts between ethical dilemmas
  • Participative citizen centric administration
  • Making aware of the initiatives like RTI, Citizen charter to make citizen centric administration.

Despite these momentous changes, the attitude of civil servants does not seem to have changed at all. This is because the civil servants still believe in the “Hegelian prescription” that they represent the universal interest of the society.

Hegel argued that the most important institution in the state was the bureaucracy which represented “the absolutely universal interests of the state proper”. To Hegel, the bureaucracy was a transcendent entity, a mind above individual mind. He regarded the bureaucracy as the universal class, synthesizing the particularism of the civil society with the general interests of the state. For Hegel, the exercise of power by the bureaucracy was a mission sanctioned by God.

It is sad but true that the civil service in India, evokes the slowness, the ponderousness, the routine, the complication of procedures, and the maladapted responses of ‘bureaucratic’ organisations to the needs which they should satisfy, and the frustrations which their members, clients, or subjects consequently endure. Therefore, it is need of the hour to reform the civil services and inculcate civil services values among the bureaucrats.

 

2nd ARC RECOMMENDATIONS TO REFORM CIVIL SERVICES:

2nd ARC recommends following reforms in the civil services to make citizen friendly administration.

Setting right the asymmetry of power:

 

It was noted that there is an imbalance in the exercise of power in governance. Often systemic rigidities, needless complexities and over-centralization make public servants ineffective and helpless in achieving positive outcomes. On the other hand, negative power of abuse of authority through violation of law, tyranny and nuisance value is virtually unchecked. This situation is further aggravated by the asymmetry of power in our society. The ‘privileged’ government position gives even the lower government functionaries, enormous power over most of the citizens given the abject poverty, illiteracy and enhancing feudal culture. This needs to be set right in any effort towards public services reforms.
 

 

Setting free civil servants from undue political interference:

 

In a democracy, the civil service has to be answerable to the elected government. There is criticism, however, that increasingly partisan intervention and cronyism are undermining the Rule of Law, distorting incentives and promoting corruption. This is adversely affecting the morale of public servants. The relationship between the political executive and the civil services needs to be transformed on the basis of mutual understanding, respect and recognition of each other’s distinct roles and responsibilities.
 

Professionalisation with stability of tenure and competition:

 

There is need to recognize the complex challenges of modern administration in various spheres of activities. Meeting such challenges require domain expertise and long experience in the sectors concerned. There is also need to foster excellence in the public system. Existing procedures and practices do not adequately help in developing domain expertise, nor do they help in utilizing the available domain expertise.
 

 

Citizen-centric administration:

 

The fact that the functioning of the civil services has an impact on the quality of governance and thus on the wellbeing of the citizen. The perception of the civil services today is of a vast impersonal organization without commitment to human needs and values. It is necessary to redress the situation particularly in this era of participative democracy by making the governance apparatus an instrument of service to the people.
 

 

Accountability:

 

There is a general feeling that existing mechanisms of accountability are inadequate. On the one hand, there are non-performance and on the other, competence and integrity are not adequately recognized or rewarded. Therefore, innovative and effective mechanisms need to be put in place to protect public money, guarantee intended outcomes and enforce accountability.
 

 

 

Outcome orientation:

 

Monitoring in government is primarily through measurement of expenditure against outlays and at best through defined outputs. Clearly, there is need to move towards measurement of outcomes. A change in this direction has already started with the initial outcome budgeting exercises. In order to engineer this shift to outcomes, major changes in attitudes, monitoring and evaluation systems, incentives and accountability measures are necessary.
 

Promoting public service values and ethics:

 

Apart from the traditional civil service values of efficiency, integrity, accountability and patriotism, it is necessary for civil servants to inculcate and adopt ethical and moral values including probity in public life, respect for human rights and compassion for the downtrodden and commitment to their welfare.

 

POLITICISATION OF BUREAUCRACY:

Politicisation of Bureaucracy refers to undue political influence in the day-to-day administration due to nexus between bureaucracy and politics resulting in government appointing their own people to sensitive positions and higher offices. Examples: CBI often allegedly treated as ruling party’s investigation against opposition parties.

 

REASONS FOR INCREASING POLITICAL INTERFERENCE IN ADMINISTRATION:
  • Decaying nature of values such as integrity, honesty, courage among politicians and bureaucrats
  • Increasing number of members with criminal record into legislative bodies. According to Association of democratic reforms report, 17Th Lok Sabha having 43 percent of members elected with criminal record.
  • Lack of stability and fixed tenure to take bold decisions
  • For the past over the years, there should not be any systematic reforms undertaken to reduce politicisation of civil services
  • Falling nature of professional competence among bureaucrats
  • Succumb to superiors’ orders
  • Threat warnings and killing of honest civil servants who shown extraordinary courage in the administration. Such fear resists civil servants to go against political masters with criminal record.

 

WAYS TO MINIMISING POLITICAL INFLUENCE IN BUREAUCRACY:
  • Written communication between politicians and administration
  • Specialisation of bureaucrats after certain period of service
  • Reforms should be undertaken both at political level and administration reforms
  • It should be avoided bureaucrats entering into politics after retirement otherwise they favour ruling govt during their last years of service for the post-retirement benefits
  • Conflict of interest should be stated

 

BUREAUCRATIC NEUTRALITY: A MYTH?

Is it possible to maintain political of bureaucracy and Weberian conceptions of administrative neutrality?

  • Government agencies at times implement the law in ways that supports with political considerations and welfare of people, while at other times it go against public cause. Therefore, stark dichotomy between political and bureaucratic understandings of administrative behaviour is a false one.
  • By adopting the language of neutrality and efficiency at the core of the Weberian account of neutrally competent modern bureaucracy, administrators can serve political ends.
  • Govt officials guided on how the law is implemented through internal management practices that seek to minimize both inefficiency and the susceptibility of lower-level bureaucrats to outside influences.

As a solution, “strategic neutrality” is an implementation practice that simultaneously serves administration management and political needs. It helps guide public policy toward desired ends while minimizing the likelihood that outsiders will gain sufficient political strength to overrule agency decisions.

 

CONDUCT RULES FOR NEUTRALITY:

Govt amended All India conduct rules which consists of dos and don’ts for bureaucrats to maintain political neutrality.

  • Make recommendations on merit alone
  • Take decisions solely on public interest
  • Declare private interests relating to public duty
  • Take steps to resolve conflicts in a way to protect public good
  • Don’t misuse official position and deprive financial or material benefits for themselves, family or friends
  • Ensure courtesy and good behaviour with public
  • Use public resources efficiently and effectively
  • Maintain accountability and transparency
  • Ensure fairness and impartiality
  • Refraining by doing anything going against rules and regulations
  • Perform and function public duty with highest degree of professionalism

 

COMMITTED BUREAUCRACY

  • The bureaucratic form of organisation has both, advantages and disadvantages. Its main advantage, as pointed out by Weber, is efficiency. Its main disadvantage, as pointed out by Marx, is alienation. Hence, we aim at reducing alienation while maintaining efficiency. This can be done, to some extent, by improving the bureaucracy’s commitment, or moral dedication.
  • According to Weber, the main characteristics of a bureaucracy are hierarchy, division of labour, specialisation, rules and impersonality. All these factors make for efficiency. At the same time, however, a bureaucracy suffers from alienation. According to Marx, the members of bureaucracy suffer from loss of freedom, creativity, humanity, and morality.

 

IMPORTANCE OF COMMITTED BUREAUCRACY:
  • Dedication, or commitment is required also because the employees have constantly to deal with complex problems, many of which are new.
  • Developmental activity in particular requires forecasting, planning, risk bearing, breaking new ground and experimentation. Hence, innovations have to be made all the time. The making of innovations, or creativity, requires emotional commitment.
  • Commitment on the part of the members of a bureaucracy leads to effectiveness and efficiency. Effectiveness means fulfilment of the organisational objectives, and efficiency means doing so with as little expenditure of resources as possible. Thus, effectiveness and efficiency are aspects of the successful working of the organisation.
  • It gives job satisfaction, which is the intrinsic satisfaction which one gets from doing a job.

 

HOW TO ENSURE COMMITMENT IN BUREAUCRACY?
  • Commitment to values and objectives enshrined in the constitution
  • Commitment to the service of the people
  • Commitment to duty and profession

 

PROMOTING ETHICS & PUBLIC SERVICE VALUES:

  • Promoting ethical values among civil servants started with Indian Regulation Act,1773. It has provisions regarding bribery and no private trade.
  • After that several attempts were made to inculcate civil services values among civil servants. After independence, Indian govt setup several committees to study civil services.
  • Among them, few notables are first ARC, Paul Appleby report on public administration, second ARC. Every committee report recommended that there is need to change the bureaucratic behaviour and promote ethics and moral values among civil servants for good governance.

Apart from the traditional civil service values of efficiency, integrity, accountability and patriotism, it is necessary for civil servants to inculcate and adopt ethical and moral values including probity in public life, respect for human rights and compassion for the downtrodden and commitment to their welfare. And also, constitution provided some of the important ethical values to follow, liberty, equality, fraternity, secularism, rule of law, distributive justice etc.

 

ATTRIBUTES OF A GOOD ADMINISTRATOR

  • Willingness to assume responsibility
  • A steadily enlarging ability to deal with more problems
  • A strong bent toward action
  • A good listener
  • Effective with people.
  • Capacity to build his own strength by building the competence of his organization
  • Capacity to use his institutional resources
  • Avoiding using power or authority for their own sake
  • Welcoming reports of troublesome things
  • A good team-worker
  • A good initiator

Apart from the above attributes a good administrator should have a few basic values to bring goodness in the society. These are called foundational values of civil services.

 

CIVIL SERVICES VALUES AS RECOMMENDED BY NOLAN COMMITTEE, UK:

Nolan committee recommended seven principles which are essential for a bureaucrat. They are:

  1. Selflessness: Holders of public office should take decisions solely in terms of public interest. Simply put, they subserve public interest as against interest of the self.
  2. Integrity: Holders of public office must insulate themselves from external influence in matters concerning official duties.
  3. Objectivity: In carrying out public business, including making public appointments, awarding contracts or recommending individuals for rewards and benefits, holders of public office should make choices on merit. The choices cannot be allowed to be made on any criteria other than merit. The requirement of recording reasons is by itself a great safeguard that inhibits the decision maker from being subjective.
  4. Accountability: Any public office is an office of trust. Therefore, public figure exercising any state function is accountable for all actions taken in performance of the functions of that office. It naturally flows from this that every act of commission or omission has to yield to scrutiny, whether by way of internal or external audit mechanism. Here audit means not just audit of accounts but cause and consequences of every state action.
  5. Openness: There is no better disinfectant than sunlight. Transparency has to be the mantra of all official acts. Holders of public office should be as open as possible about all the decisions and actions they take. They should give reasons for their decisions and restrict information only when the wider public interest clearly demands
  6. Honesty: Those who are working in public service to be honest in dealing with private interests. It is essential that holders of public office must be obliged to declare their private interests so that they can always be held accountable in case there has been any conflict involving their public duties. This also means the assets and liabilities of public functionaries must be a matter in public domain. The mandatory declaration at the time of entry in public office and periodically, thereafter, would only ensure the kind of probity we would like to be in place.
  7. Leadership: A true leader will always lead by own example. If a leader is honest, sincere and committed to the task assigned to him, the vibes created percolate down the hierarchy cleansing the system that he controls.
ARC in its 10th report (Refurbishing Personnel administration, scaling new height) is of the view that in addition to commitment to the constitution values for civil services should include:

  • Objectivity
  • Commitment to the principles enshrined in the Constitution
  • Empathy and compassion for the vulnerable and weaker section of society
  • Adherence to the highest standards of probity, integrity and conduct
  • Commitment to the citizens concerned and public good
  • Impartiality and non-partisanship.

 

DWIGHT WALDO’S 12 OBLIGATIONS OF AN ADMINISTRATOR:
  • Dwight waldo prescribed 12 obligations for an administrator which he should follow when conflict occurs between law, family, duty etc.
  • Waldo’s point was that ethical obligations become especially complex when these conflicts. It is too easy to argue that the public administrator should remain consistent with organization bureaucratic norms, and subordinate all else when on the job. But what to do when these conflict with the law, or the values of one’s profession, or one’s commitment to family, or to one’s professional judgment of the public interest, or to one’s own professional interests? These obligations guide him to take good decision when conflict occurs. They are:
  • Obligation to the Constitution
  • Obligation to law
  • Obligation to nation or country
  • Obligation to democracy
  • Obligation to organization bureaucratic norms
  • Obligation to profession and professionalism
  • Obligation to family and friends
  • Obligation to self
  • Obligation to middle-range objectives “party, class, race, union, church, interest group and others”
  • Obligation to the public interest or general welfare
  • Obligation to humanity or the world
  • Obligation to religion, or to God

 

FOUNDATIONAL VALUES OF CIVIL SERVICES:

Fundamental values are those values which are:

  • Basic and Fundamental in nature
  • Determines core identity
  • Essential to achieve objectives or goals

 

APTITUDE

  • Dictionary meaning of Aptitude is, Natural ability to do something. Here Natural means sum total of experiences a person had rather than simply by birth. It is neither acquired but nor inherent. It is simply sum total of skills he learns during his lifetime along with inborn aptitude.
  • A person having a better aptitude it means he/she has the innate potential to do something. A civil servant requires such aptitude to do something to the society in his public service and ability to adopt new skills as per changing times. Having potential is pre condition to achieve anything.
  • Aptitude also looks at the future potential in coordination with present pattern of aptitude and potentialities.
  • Aptitude for civil servants not only based on just knowledge and skills but also it based on values and ethics. They require a Holistic Competence, should be seen in integrated manner.
 

 

 

Examples:

 

  • UPSC tests civil services aspirants’ aptitude through CSAT (Civil services Aptitude Test) during preliminary exam.
  • If a student doesn’t have maths skills, he doesn’t fit for application areas of maths like statistics, data management.
  • A certain aptitude for public service is inherent in the decision to join the civil services.
  • To become sport person, one requires psycho motor coordination
  • Defence services or police services requires mental as well as physical aptitude

 

TYPES OF APTITUDE:
  • Physical Aptitude – Physical traits like heights, stamina, Chest breadth for armed forces etc
  • Mental Aptitude – IQ, certain value-based attributes like honesty, integrity, patriotism etc.

 

APTITUDE FOR CIVIL SERVANTS:
  • Intellectual aptitude: This kind of aptitude based on knowledge and rationality. Means are only important than ends.
  • Emotional aptitude: This aptitude mainly deals with behavioural ethics, which largely deals with public, subordinates and superiors. This is also including how a civil servant controls his emotions on duty.
  • Moral aptitude: Includes moral values like empathy, compassion, justice. Means and ends both are important here.
 

 

 

Different Ways To Express Aptitude In Civil Services

 

  • On-Spot decision making
  • Ability to differentiate between who are genuine and fake people
  • Working through deadlines
  • Ability to take responsibility
  • Hardworking
  • Dedication to public service
  • Tolerance and perseverance
  • Discipline

 

  • Domain Competence
  • Emotional Intelligence
  • Ethical Behaviour
  • Attitude
  • Aptitude of Civil Servant

 

In normal Aptitude simply means knowledge and skills but for a civil servant its nurtured with ethical behaviour. A right balance should be maintained between Aptitude and Attitude.

APTITUDE INTELLIGENCE
Application of Knowledge, rationality, ethical values and Emotional intelligence Includes Knowledge & skills
Means & ends both are important Means are more important than ends
Its specific ability of an individual It is a general mental ability
Measured in terms of how well a person can perform tasks Measured in terms of how much a person performs tasks in a competitive world
We can acquaint us with the specific abilities and capacities of an individual to succeed in a particular field of activity. We can predict individual’s success in a number of situations involving mental function or activity

 

  • Skills
  • Values
  • Holistic Competence

 

APTITUDE ATTITUDE
Ability to acquire skills, knowledge, abilities. Settled way of thinking
It is more about how we manage a situation How to perceive something
Associated with skill enhancement and knowledge enrichment and their applications This is more about virtues and values and their application

 

CRITICISM AGAINST APTITUDE:
  • It’s very difficult differentiate between what is correct potential
  • Good behaviour attributed to attitude but not aptitude
  • It’s incorrect to judge someone’s potential purely based on aptitude. Motto towards service enough to serve the nation but not just aptitude is the only criteria.

The below values considered as Holistic competence for civil servants Aptitude. These 4Es should not be seen as a separate value. Though there maybe overlapping but each value has distinctive characteristics.

                                                                HOLISTIC COMPETENCE: 4Es
 

ETHOS

 

Exhibits citizen centricity and inclusiveness, promotes public good and long-term interests of the Nation, People First, Strategic Thinking, Organisational Awareness, Commitment to the Organisation, Leading Others
ETHICS

 

Self Confidence, Attention to Detail, Taking Accountability, Demonstrates integrity, transparency, openness and fairness
 

 

EFFICIENCY

 

Promotes operational excellence and value for money, manages human capital and nurtures capability, Results Orientation, Conceptual Thinking, Initiative and Drive, Seeking Information, Planning and Coordination, Desire for Knowledge, Innovative Thinking, Problem Solving, Developing Others, Self-Awareness and Self-Control, Communication Skills, Team-Working.
EQUITY

 

Treats all citizens alike, ensures justice to all, with empathy for the weaker section, Consultation and Consensus Building, Decision Making, Delegation.

 

INTEGRITY

  • Literal meaning of Integrity is the whole” or “completeness”. Therefore, Integrity referred as holistic set of values and thoughts. But from civil services point of view “Integrity defined as being a person with integrity means having the quality of being honest and having strong moral principles that one refuses to change”.
  • Integrity is always defined in terms of person’s relationship with the institution. It means organisation’s interests put above the self-interest. Civil servants should be guided solely by public interest in their official decision making and not by any financial or other consideration either in respect of themselves, their families or their friends.
  • Personalities with highest degree of integrity are TN Sheshan, Ashok Khemka, Abdul kalam.
  • Usually, Integrity measures in terms of Financial Integrity, how honest is he. And also, we can have other types of integrity are there like Intellectual integrity, Moral Integrity, Professional Integrity.
“You will not have a united India if you do not have a good Ail India Service, which has the independence to speak out its mind and which has a sense of security. I need hardly emphasize that an efficient, disciplined and contented service assured of its prospects as a result of diligent and honest work is the sine qua non of sound administration under a democratic regime, even more than under authoritarian rule” – Sardar Vallabhai Patel on Civil services in India.

 

According to Ministry of Personnel, a person with integrity “Consistently behaves in an open, fair and transparent manner, honours one’s commitments and works to uphold the Public service values.”

 

SOURCES OF INTEGRITY:
  • Conscience – One’s inner conscience always guides how to adhere to our values.
  • Constitution as a source – Part IV-A and Article 51A on fundamental duties mentioned as: “Uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India”
  • Code of conduct and code of ethics for civil services.
  • Rewards and awards for recognising Integrity of individuals who uplift the values of the organisation. g. Annual Vigilance awards, On Civil services day and good governance day, best administrators will be recognised and awarded by PM.
  • Learning from peers and role models
  • Foundational training and midterm career training who frequently teaches importance of values in Administration.

 

TYPES OF INTEGRITY:

Integrity involves managing various commitments and values, it can be said that such types of integrity are simply manifestations of a person’s overall integrity, or of their personal integrity.

Moral

Integrity

 

  • Moral integrity is doing the right thing when no one is watching.
  • Judging others and own self based on honesty and consistency.
  • Moral integrity is having the courage to follow what we believe in our hearts is right.
  • Strongest integrity when compare to other types of integrity.
 

 

 

Intellectual

Integrity

 

  • Intellectual integrity is to being honest with own thinking while judgement.
  • This leads to true moral judgement, avoid false consciousness, ability to admit own mistakes, respect other’s efforts and also lead to moral accountability.
  • Factors like avoiding self-centred attitude, Leadership, aware of ground reality, liberal personality, avoiding discrimination and stereotyping, motivating counterpart, maintains harmony amongst colleagues develops intellectual integrity.
  • A person has intellectual but not personal integrity, or has more of the former than the latter.
 

 

Professional

Integrity

 

  • Upholding the code of ethics, standards, norms and values of the respective profession
  • Professional integrity thus defines the professional who consistently and willingly practices within the guidelines of the mission of a chosen profession under the obligation of a Code of Ethics.
  • Varies from organisation to organisation
  • Professional integrity can be compromised sometimes when compare to moral integrity and narrower than other types

 

FACTORS THAT DECIDES INTEGRITY:
  • Consistency: Consistency is a pre-condition for Integrity. Consistency in thoughts, decision making. It is not about taking correct decision now and later rush into decision making hastily is not the consistency. Consistency is about being the same regardless of the situation. Unwavering adherence to our decisions and values irrespective of situations. E.g. Civil servants frequently get pressure from higher officials and local MLAs and Ministers to get favour of them while awarding contracting. Such pressure never gets influence our decision making and diluting our values not to be treated as consistent integrity.
  • Accuracy of one’s actions: Action should be in sync with words and words should be in sync with one’s thoughts – Eliminating the gap between actual conduct and desirable conduct.g. An officer speaking something before public and showing different behaviour in actual conduct while implementing any project or dam construction
  • Truthfulness: Upholding the value of truth is very much essential in Integrity.g. Speaking the truth on implementation of the project or policy or delay in publishing merit list of candidates for recruitment
  • Honesty

 

SIGNIFICANCE OF INTEGRITY IN PUBLIC LIFE:
  • As civil servants are given unrestricted access to power, integrity ensures effective use of power in the process of administration
  • Safeguard the nation from corruption by politicians and public officials who have been given almost unrestricted access to public resources together with the power to take decisions that impact on the lives of everyone and the nation as a whole.
  • Integrity along with honesty and transparency lays foundation for ethical governance and good governance
  • It also inculcates habit of accountability among the officials
  • Ensures there is no conflict of interest while dealing with govt projects
  • Develops independent thought process and decision making instead of political pressure and emotional attachment while dealing with ethical dilemmas
  • Makes civil servants and public with integrity socially responsible

 

REASONS FOR DECLINING INTEGRITY IN CIVIL SERVICES:

There are various causes which result in lack of integrity. These can be discussed under the following points.

  • Industrialisation and LPG era– With the industrialisation man started resorted to exploiting nature and became materialistic life seeking comforts. In this process, ethical values started declining and eroded almost from public life.
  • Colonial attitudes – By continuing ICS services even after the independence also continued colonial nature of administration which is in by nature opaque, non-transparent, Redtapism, lack of integrity, partial.
  • Post-Independent politics– After the independence with continuous political turmoil and emergency, political instability. Using such advantage situation bureaucracy had resorted to corrupt practices
  • Lack of Regulatory environment – There is no proper regulatory framework to assess civil servants’ performances and their actual conduct in daily administration.
  • Politicisation of Bureaucracy – Too much interference from bureaucracy and criminalisation of bureaucracy also impacted erosion of integrity in public life. Public lost faith on civil servants.
  • Corruption – This is also one of the reasons which causes declining integrity with scams like 2G scam, coal scam, commonwealth scam etc
  • Lack of code of Ethics – We have code of conduct but we don’t have code of ethics to enhances values among civil servants
  • Article 311 – By granting constitutional protection to civil servants, there will be a long process to prosecute corrupt officials which require departmental permission.
  • Conflict of Interest – By having conflict of interest, civil servants choosing sides with personal affiliations.

 

INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK TO STRENGTHEN INTEGRITY:

Presently the following legal and institutional framework we have to promote integrity and check corruption

  • Prevention of corruption act,1988
  • Civil services conduct rules
  • Central Vigilance commission and state vigilance commission
  • CBI
  • Lokpal and Lokayukta
  • Integrity pacts

 

COMMONWEALTH’S MODEL ACT OF INTEGRITY:
  • The Model Act provides for Ministers and non-elected public officials to abide by the terms of the Codes of Conduct and to make written declarations of conflict of interest.
  • It details offences constituting abuse of office, misconduct and neglect of duty.
  • It sets up an Integrity Commission and provides for its composition, functions and powers.
  • The Model Act is explicitly drafted to apply to public servants involved in all of the main areas of governance: the executive, the legislature and officers employed by parliament, and the judiciary.
  • A requirement for signature of a copy of the Code of Conduct generates a public undertaking to act in a particular way, to which the general public can hold Ministers and all public officials accountable. In this way transparency and accountability – both of which are key constituents in upholding integrity in public life – are enhanced.
  • In types of cases that are particularly blameworthy, of conduct contrary to the terms of the Model Act, the Act proposes an offence under the heading of “abuse of office” or “misconduct and neglect of duty”.

 

In the Model Act, responsibility for administering the Act is placed on a dedicated Integrity Commission established specifically for the purpose with the following main functions:

  • To promote and enforce integrity and accountability of public officials
  • To identify areas of public duty in which significant conflict of interest issues are likely to arise
  • To devise guidelines on conflicts of interest
  • To advise public officials on the application of the Act, the Codes of Conduct and the guidelines
  • To oversee the signing of Codes of Conduct by public officials
  • To investigate allegations of offences under the Act.

 

WAYS TO IMPROVE INTEGRITY IN CIVIL SERVICES:
  • Developing habit of Accountability of their official conduct which indirectly enhances integrity and develops habit of being responsible while dealing with public
  • There should be no conflict of interest
  • Inculcate courage of conviction and spirt of service which are two most fundamental ideals to ensure integrity
  • Implementation of RTI in letter and spirit which ensures transparency and information sharing
  • Impartial in official conduct and no political bias
  • Politely reject undue political requests and pressures for seeking any favouritism
  • Public funds should be utilised with utmost care, financial integrity can be achieved only with efficient use of public purse
  • Check and intelligence gathering on bribing at subordinate level in your office

 

STEPS TAKEN BY GOVT TO PROMOTE INTEGRITY IN CIVIL SERVANTS:

Some of the initiatives taken by govt to promote Integrity among civil servants:

  • Separate column of integrity in ACR.
  • In CVC selection criterion one integrity clause has been added that person should be of unquestionable integrity.
  • Integrity pledge by CVC and Integrity index by CVC and IIM Ahmedabad
  • IMF has Integrity Hotline for handling allegation against staff misconduct for internal and external sources.
  • Integrity pacts – a tool developed by transparency International. It was used in AgustaWestland deal.
  • Integrity survey for honest officers.
  • Integrity recognition certificate by government.

 

HONESTY

  • It simply means representing the same what exactly they are in convergence of thoughts and actions.
    • Upholding the truth
    • Non manipulation of facts
    • Providing unbiased, rational and meritorious decisions.
HONESTY INTEGRITY
Being truthful and standing what we say Consistency in value system, thoughts and actions
Telling lie may or may not break our Honesty Being truthfulness is the first pre condition for Integrity
May or May not reflect actual conduct Must be reflected in actual conduct
Can be Honest without integrity – Just words no action It can’t be possible without Honesty – Words and actions are in sync
Honesty is One of the components of Integrity Honesty is subset of Integrity
Example: Lal Bahadur shastri known for his honesty and moral commitment. He resigned when rail accident happens during his tenure as railway minister Example: TN Sheshan who reformed elections was known for his integrity

 

CONSEQUENCES OF ABSENCE OF HONESTY AND INTEGRITY:
  • Knowledge without Integrity: Integrity & knowledge, both of which are essential components of governance & efficiency. A blend of both integrity and knowledge is required for public service as well as for the inclusive growth of the society. Knowledge without integrity is both dangerous and dreadful. A man without integrity will not only imbalances the harmonious work culture and efficiency but will also promotes nepotism, corruption and inefficiency thus eroding the aspect of inclusive growth.
    • The integrity of a person depends on two factors:
      • One is skills means ability to do
      • The other factor is the values within that guide such action.

In other words, however talented a person may be his contribution to the society directly depends on the values he has imbibed. If the values are negative like anger, ego, greed, jealousy, vindictiveness etc., the higher skill will result in higher negative contribution.

 

Examples:

 

  • Charles Sobharaj, Osama Bin Laden, Harshad Mehta like are examples of such high skill and low values.
  • ISIS recruiting very high skilled young minds and diverting into anti-social activities
  • Cyber hackers

 

    • In the modern era, we have very high skills in all the spheres. But the decline in value system all around is deteriorating the situation and resulting in overall unhappiness, insecurity and tensions.
    • These in turn lead to all sort of health problems – physical, mental emotional and psychological.
  • Intellectual Dishonesty:
    • Intellectual dishonesty is a failure to apply standards of rational evaluation, meritorious decision making in problem solving
    • False claims
    • Biased decision making
    • Absence of honesty
    • Manipulated facts that is not adherence to values and truthfulness
  • Conflict of Interest:
    • A conflict of interest arises when a person’s interests is not in the best interest of his organization to which that individual owes loyalty. So, Conflict of interest may be defined as a situation in which a public employee has a private or personal interest sufficient to influence or appear to influence the objective
    • Exercise of his official duties. It’s a situation when person involves in multiple interests and serving one best interests over another. Conflict between self-interest and overall welfare of the organisation. This arises when a person having no integrity to the organisation he is working.
    • Conflict of Interest mainly arises when an official lacking financial integrity which leads to corruption finally but this is not just limited to economic matters but it’s just an indicator.

EXAMPLE: 2G scam, ICICI former CEO Chanda Kocher favouritism to his Husband entity in sanctioning loans

Awarding contracts to relatives involved.

OECD’S TYPES OF CONFLICT OF INTEREST:

  1. Actual conflict of interest: A direct conflict between a public official’s current duties and responsibilities and his/her private interests.
  2. Apparent conflict of interest: where it appears that a public official’s private interests could improperly influence the performance of their duties but this is not in fact the case.
  3. Potential conflict of interest: where a public official has private interests, which are such that a conflict of interest would arise if the official were to become involved in the relevant official responsibilities in the future.

 

 

 

Different situations where Conflict of Interest occurs:

 

  • Bribery
  • Influence govt’s official in awarding contracts
  • Economic matters
  • Gifts
  • External source of income
  • Relatives businesses.

 

Ways to solve Conflict of Interest in Civil Services:
  • Complete transparency in decision making
  • Strict implementation of code of conduct and code of ethics
  • Making accountable for their actions
  • One way of avoiding conflict between public and private interest is through disclosure of one’s interest. This by itself cannot resolve the conflict of interest but is a good first step as it acknowledges the possibility of such a conflict.
  • Register of Interests should be maintained. A specific mechanism for disclosure of private interests is maintenance of a ‘Register of Interests’. Legislators are expected to record in the register all their interests periodically.
  • The Ethics Commissioner should be appointed similar to the lines of USA to look into interpret the rules which govern standards of conduct and conflict of interest.
The Committee on Ethics of the Rajya Sabha, recommended that to start with the following interests of Members should be entered in the Register. It is also relevant to civil services:

  • Remunerative Directorship
  • Regular Remunerated Activity
  • Shareholding of Controlling Nature
  • Paid Consultancy
  • Professional Engagement

To conclude, Integrity is a vital part of all our lives. Without a basic human integrity, we are animals. Integrity defines how we live, and who we are. If I could adhere to only one value to live by, it would be Integrity. Success will come and go, but integrity is forever. Integrity is all about doing the right thing at all times and in all circumstances, whether or not anyone is watching.

 

OBJECTIVITY

  • Objectivity refers to the ability to judge fairly, without bias or external influence. It is the quality of being true even outside of a subject, individual biases, interpretation and feelings. Objectivity involves value free judgement based solely on merit. Objectivity means decisions and actions are based on empirically verifiable facts.
  • The Nolan Committee has mentioned objectivity as one of the seven foundational value in public life.
  • It is based on action based on facts, evidence which can be proved and right on line of scientific standards and rationally reasonable.

 

NECESSITY OF OBJECTIVITY FOR CIVIL SERVANTS:
  • Civil servants discharge their duties based on clearly defined rules
  • It ensures fair judgements but not with emotions
  • To ensure impartiality and non-partisanship
  • To helps in decision making based on evidence, facts and field visits but not ideally sitting at head quarters
  • Resolves ethical dilemmas
  • Efficient utilisation of public funds
  • Helps in smooth flow of governance
  • To maintain political neutrality and ensures fair decision making but not with any political compulsions
  • Cultivates values like integrity, honesty, transparency

 

OBJECTIVITY SUBJECTIVITY
Based on verifiable facts Based on assumed facts
We look things from the perspective of how they are We look things from our perspective
Scientifically valid and rationally reasonable Nothing proved like that
No personal opinions influence our decision making Personal opinions play a role in decision making
On ground reality and filed visits Based on assumptions and imagination
No ground for prejudices and stereotypes There is ground for generalisation
Examples:

To understand tribal problems and for their welfare one should filed visit tribal habitats frequently

Sexual harassment cases against senior employees to be verified with evidence instead of prejudice or stereotypes.  Objectivity in investigations instead of subjective view of first suspects belongs to lower section of people.

Examples:

Terror cases – Usually police suspects terrorists belongs to one religious’ community

 

HOW OBJECTIVITY IS USEFUL IN CIVIL SERVICES?
  • There is no scope for irrational reasoning while awarding contracts or picking up beneficiaries
  • There is enough proof scientifically valid in implementing a govt programme or sanctioning dam project etc
  • To understand cultures and customs in tribal dominated areas
  • Filed visits to analyse ground reality instead of just sitting head quarters
  • To develop positivity among the staff and public.
According to Nolan committee objectivity must be there “in carrying out public business, including making public appointments, awarding contracts, or recommending individuals for rewards and benefits, holders of public office should make choices on merit.”

 

CRITICISM AGAINST OBJECTIVITY:
  • Too much objective leads to apathetic in administration
  • Kills innovation, creativity at field level. Too much interference from headquarters or secretariat discourages good ideas
  • Makes a man completely emotion less person. Purely based on facts and data may not be sufficient sometimes to take fair decision.

 

WAYS TO INCULCATE OBJECTIVITY:
  • To ensure objectivity administration should be carried on written rules with less discretion
  • Develop emotional intelligence and empathetic towards weaker section of society
  • Allowing freedom to implement good innovative ideas at field level instead of taking every order from superiors but with written permission from them
  • With transparency and openness objectivity can be ensured
  • Information management system one of the innovate enhances objectivity

 

NON-PARTISANSHIP AND IMPARTIALITY:
  • NON-PARTISAN – Non-partisanship is a quality of being politically neutral. Non-partisanship entails that the civil servant will serve the government of the day faithfully irrespective of his own political views, preferences and beliefs.
  • IMPARTIALITY – Impartiality means acting solely on merit while dealing with the general public without discrimination on the basis of race, religion, caste, class or any other consideration. It is a principle of justice holding that decisions should be based on objective criteria, rather than on the basis of bias, prejudice, or preferring the benefit to one person over another for improper reasons.
  • Political Neutrality– Non-partisanship should be apolitical behaviour and non-prejudice and no stereotypes.
  • Impartiality and Non-partisanship can be used interchangebly. It is non-discriminatory and being fair and unbiased. It is based on principle of Equal justice and based on merit.
    • Citizens should be discriminated based on gender, caste, religion etc
    • Impartial advice to the govt

India as a diverse country in terms of religion, caste, gender and varies region to region. Civil servants are expected to show impartiality and non-partisanship attitude and implement rule of law in letter and spirit.

 

  • CIVIL SERVICE NEUTRALITY
    • Non-Partisanship
    • Political Impartiality

 

WHY IT IS IMPORTANT TO BE IMPARTIAL AND NON-PARTISAN?
  • To uphold constitutional values prescribed in the preamble “Equality of status and Opportunity”
  • In accordance with the Article 14 and article 15 of the constitution – Right to Equality
  • Equitable distribution of resources
  • Inclusive growth
  • Sustainable growth
  • To prevent majoritarian dominance
  • To not to bias any political party and showing any favouritism based on our political ideology
  • To build credibility and trust among the public
  • Civil servants in carrying out their official work, including functions like procurement, recruitment, delivery of services etc, should take decisions based on merit and free from any partisan consideration.

 

NON-PARTISANSHIP:
  • Though it can be treated as synonym with impartiality but it refers particularly about political neutrality. In a parliamentary democracy Political executive is temporary but Bureaucracy is permanent. Therefore, civil servants are to be work with different political parties during their career. They should not have any political ideology professionally. The only political freedom they enjoy is voting in elections. They should be completely non-partisan and impartial.
  • Otherwise it will be led to Politicisation of Bureaucracy. During emergency period Indira Gandhi called for a committed bureaucracy, who they work for ruling party. Some of the senior officials works for ruling party because of post-retirement benefits like career advancements, governor posts etc.

 

CONSEQUENCES OF PARTISANSHIP:

If bureaucrats become partisan towards political parties the consequence to be, they will act as political party servants than public servants:

  • Through partisan nature they violate their oath of office as political neutrality
  • They ignore Sense of public duty and public welfare at stake.
  • They are obligated to enhance constitutional values but by affiliating to political parties, it will lead to constitutional breakdown. Example: Emergency in 1970s
  • Politics- Bureaucrats nexus threat to democracy and secularism
  • There will be no social justice and merit to be ignored. Example: Vyapam scam in MP
  • Political pressure and breaking down our own morality will make a man apathetic towards weaker section of society.
  • Leads to inefficient utilisation of resources, corruption and scams. Example: 2G scam and coal gate scam

 

IMPARTIALITY:

The civil service is required to be politically impartial, loyal and with equal commitment to serve Governments of all political persuasions. This means that:

  • He may not publicly defend the decisions and views of Ministers (as distinct from explaining them), including in the social and other media, or by writing to newspapers,
  • He must even avoid saying or writing anything which could be quoted as demonstrating that he personally (or your colleagues) either agree or disagree with Ministers’ decisions,
  • He may not disclose the advice that he has given to Ministers
  • He must explain and implement your Minister’s policies with real commitment, whatever your personal views.

 

POLITICAL IMPARTIALITY PUBLIC IMPARTIALITY
Political neutrality that is showing any kind of impartiality towards any political party Being partial towards weaker section of people but impartiality should be first step in achieving equality
Can’t use public resources for any political party like donating public land for ruling party office Can’t use public resources for self-interest or personal interest. Everyone should be treated equally while allocating resources of govt
End result will be politicisation of Bureaucracy if not impartial End result will be nepotism, favouritism if not impartiality in public duty
Does not allow civil servants personal political views to determine any advice you give or your actions to political parties Does not allow civil servant to have personal opinions on contemporary issues like reservations, quota system. It’s the duty of govt to frame policies and its duty of civil servant to implement them.

 

DEDICATION TO PUBLIC SERVICE

“Public service refers to the delivery of govt services to the public. “

  • Civil servants should deliver services in a fair, effective, impartial and courteous Dedication to such public service serves sense of duty which is inspired by many ideals. Such dedication ensures that one can deliver public services even in the absence of formal commitments and obligations. In today’s world where Ethical Governance is a global concern, different countries are making efforts in achieving clean government.
  • An outright approach is towards developing service orientation in the public service. The government servants are expected to serve with the at your service attitude. Such a temperament can be an outcome of a Pure Mind only, which is neither influenced by the preconditions or the preconceived ideas, nor by the ego or the selfish interests: neither by the Tamasic guna nor by the Rajasic guna.
  • The balanced state of Sattwa can only provide the public services without deviation of funds or interest in one’s own interest. Public service delivery can be efficiently administered, if social network groups are in operation and they mobilise people around common issues. Women’s Self-Help Groups/ Micro-Credit Institutions in Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu and Kudumbashri in Kerala are fine examples of collective participation which have led to better implementation of development programmes in these States.

 

PUBLIC SERVICES CODE:

A draft ‘Public Service Bill’ of the Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions seeks to lay down a number of generic expectations from civil servants, which are referred to as “values”. The salient ‘values’ envisaged in the Bill are:

  • Allegiance to the various ideals enshrined in the preamble to the Constitution
  • Apolitical functioning
  • Good governance for betterment of the people to be the primary goal of civil service
  • Duty to act objectively and impartially
  • Accountability and transparency in decision-making
  • Maintenance of highest ethical standards
  • Merit to be the criteria in selection of civil servants consistent, however, with the cultural, ethnic and other diversities of the nation Ensuring economy and avoidance of wastage in expenditure
  • Provision of healthy and congenial work environment
  • Communication, consultation and cooperation in performance of functions i.e. participation of all levels of personnel in management.

The draft Bill also envisages a Public Service Code and a Public Service Management Code laying down more specific duties and responsibilities. Violation of the Code would invite punishments akin to the current major and minor penalties by the heads of institutions/ organizations. A ‘Public Service Authority’ is also envisaged to oversee implementation of the Code and values indicated above and to render advice in the matter of the values and the Code.

As instruments of public service, civil servants have to be ready for change. The common experience, however, is that they resist changes as they are wedded to their privileges and prospects and thereby, have become ends in themselves. Kant’s “Duty for the sake of duty” realises civil services attitude towards their duty. In civil services, dedication integrates with the person’s public good.

This dedication would ensure that civil servant’s sense of duty is integrated with his official responsibility. As a result, that will to serve the public keep doing his job even if it is un-wanting, tedious, or in hostile environment etc.

Public servants today are at the helm of complex challenges of administration in critical sectors like policing, education, healthcare, transportation, land management, infrastructure, skill promotion, employment generation, rural development and urban management. Therefore, civil servants should be motivated and inspired to work to achieve such noble goals. What they needed is just spirit of service and spirit of sacrifice for the welfare of the country.

 

IMPORTANCE OF DEDICATION IN PUBLIC SERVICE:

Dedication is the quality of being committed to the certain task. Commitment is the formal obligation but dedication is guided by sense of duty and values. Therefore, Dedication is defined as quality of commitment with perseverance.

  • Dedication integrates civil servants’ idea of public good
  • Inculcates sense of duty
  • For the nation’s development
  • For the cause of weaker sections of society
  • To be brave and take bold decisions

 

SIGNIFICANCE OF DEDICATION FOR CIVIL SERVANTS:
  • A dedicated bureaucrat can uplift the ideals and values enshrined in the constitution
  • To find out creative solutions for the problems faced in the administration
  • To handle political pressures
  • Enhances his credibility among the public
  • Efficient use of resources
  • To act in manner in which no one will be discriminated
  • A dedicated civil servant can motivate others and become role model for others
  • Dedication
    • Commitment
    • Perseverance

 

CIVIL SERVANTS WHO DEDICATED THEIR LIFE FOR PUBLIC WELFARE:

 

 

SR Sankaran

  • S. R. Sankaran was an Indian civil servant, social worker and the Chief Secretary of the State of Tripura, known for his contributions for the enforcement of Abolition of Bonded Labour Act of 1976 which abolished bonded labour in India.
TN Sheshan
  • Brought several reforms in elections
 

Ashok Khemka

  • Known and respected for his high levels of honesty and integrity. He is best known for cancelling the illegal land deal in Gurgaon and also brought several irregularities in the govt. Due to this he transferred more then 50 times in his career.
Vinod Rai
  • During his tenure as CAG chief he brought several scams like 2G scam, coal scam etc.
Mahesh Bhagwat
  • Known for his friendly policing and also trains civil services exam aspirants free of cost.
Armstrong pame
  • Awarded with most eminent IAS awardee for his dedication to public service
Durga shakti Nagpal
  • She came into public view after launching a massive drive against corruption and illegal sand mining within her jurisdiction.
Praveen Kaswan
  • An IFS officer, known for his efforts to make people aware of conservation and forestry through social media.

 

 

TOLERANCE

  • Tolerance is recognising other’s beliefs and practices without sharing in them. It’s simply respecting others beliefs, customs and accepting what they are. Intolerance can be unlearnt but tolerance comes with mutual respect.
  • Tolerance is a fair, objective & permissive attitude towards those whose opinion, practices, race, religion, gender, or economic status etc differ from one’s own.
  • Tolerance is a foundational value in civil servants.
  • Tolerance is a basic value for other values.
  • Empathy and compassion is not possible without tolerance.
  • That is why Plato has called temperance as one of the four cardinal virtues.
  • Aristotle has talked about ‘golden mean’.
  • Jawaharlal Nehru has been very tolerant to criticism. After Indo-China war his own ministers criticised him in the parliament. He listened to them and acknowledged their criticism.

 

ARISTOTLE GOLDEN MEAN:

Tolerance is the midpoint on a spectrum ranging between prohibition/unacceptance at one end to acceptance at the other.

  • Prohibition
    • Tolerance
      • Acceptance

 

 

Examples:

 

·         Imposing our cultural values on others – Intolerant

·         Meat eating people not forcing vegetarians to eat meat and vice versa

·         In Jainism tolerance is captured in the ideal of Syaadavaada, which means that every view is correct from its own perspective, but no particular view is absolutely correct.

 

TOLERANCE CAN BE CONCEPTUALIZED IN THREE FORMS-
  • Permissive conceptions
  • Coexistence conception
  • Respect or esteem conception

 

IMPORTANCE OF TOLERANCE- ETHICS OF TOLERANCE:
  • Tolerance at individual level develops sense of respect towards others
  • To strengthen moral values of individuals by accepting others beliefs and customs
  • At societal level to maintain communal harmony
  • Tolerance gives the chance to raise voice through Freedom of expression and speech
  • Other values like Equality and justice can’t be achieved without tolerance
  • For Human development
  • Article 19 – civil servants have to show tolerance not only for different practices but also different viewpoints.
  • It is a constitutional obligation over civil servant. Tolerance is inherent in secularism.
  • To be impartial, objective and non-partisan. A civil servant cannot treat everyone equally if he is not tolerant.
  • Refugee crisis can be solved through tolerance
  • Space for cultural dialogue

The spirit of tolerance and love towards other sections of society develops mutual respect in the society which creates a harmonious and peaceful coexistence.

 

EMPATHY & COMPASSION TOWARDS WEAKER SECTIONS OF SOCIETY:

Empathy and compassion considered as foundational value in civil services towards weaker sections of society. Apathy, sympathy, Empathy and compassion terms are used to denote the self-lessness.

Apathy Lack of interest with less or no emotions. It is the state of indifference or the state in which no emotion such as concern; care, motivation etc are shown.
Sympathy Involves a feeling of pity and sorrow for suffering of others.
Empathy It is about experiencing feelings and emotions of others and active desire to help
Compassion Able to understand others sufferings and actively involving to help others. This is action part of empathy

 

EMPATHY:

Empathy and Compassion mostly used interchangbly. Empathy is about thinking and feeling from others perspective. As swamy Vivekananda said, Prefer a man with kind heart rather than intelligent mind.

  • Empathy is considered as one of the important values that should be possessed by any civil servant. If a civil servant having empathy nothing else matters but if he doesn’t have empathy again nothing else matters.
  • If you have empathy all other values like honesty, tolerance, integrity will be part of your value system. If you don’t have empathy all other values become insignificant.
  • Empathy is essential for understanding wider perspective, rational thinking, feeling emotions of other by stepping them into their shoes.
  • It’s the basic awareness of the emotions and feelings of others.
  • Empathy is the basis of an Emotional Intelligence, ability to use our emotions in a positive way to overcome conflicts and challenges. We can develop this attitude only when we are selfless. It is simply stepping into someone’s shoes.
  • Empathy and compassion is not possible without tolerance.
 

Examples:

 

  • Granting leave for pregnant women
  • Patience to listen problems of old age people and people from weaker section of people

 

IMPORTANCE OF EMPATHY IN CIVIL SERVICES:
  • For positive discrimination for weaker sections of society
  • By understanding others emotions, One’s Emotional Intelligence helps in better decision making for good governance and ethical governance
  • For inclusive growth empathy is need of the hour
  • As India a diverse country, with the help of empathy we can able to avoid stereotypes and prejudices in bringing administration.
MEANINGS:

  • Apathy – indifference
  • Sympathy – kindness
  • Empathy – experience
  • Compassion – action

 

WHY EMPATHY MATTERS?
  • Empathy helps connect people, moving them toward each other in a helping and/or healing capacity.
  • When you show deep empathy toward others, their defense energy goes down and positive energy replaces it. That’s when you can get more creative in solving problems
  • As we live our lives at work and at home, we are continually interacting and balancing relationship dynamics.
  • When we lack empathy, we are unable to develop and nurture those interpersonal connections, leading to strained relationships, broken trust, loss of relationships, and isolation.
  • It becomes more difficult to repair conflicts, work collaboratively, or solve problems when we don’t practice empathy.
  • Our society relies on empathy to facilitate connections and forward movement. When the empathy piece is missing, we become more disconnected and less effective in our productivity and innovation of new ideas.

 

TYPES OF EMPATHY:

 

COGNITIVE EMPATHY EMOTIONAL EMPATHY AFFECTIVE EMPATHY
Taking another person’s perspective Sharing an emotional experience Ability to understand another person’s emotions
Imagining what it’s like in another person’s shoes Feeling distress in response to someone’s pain Respond appropriately to the someone’s suffer
Understanding someone’s feelings Experiencing a willingness to help someone If someone embarrassed, chill them with blush

 

COMPASSION:
  • Compassion takes empathy and sympathy a step further. When you are compassionate, you feel the pain of another or you recognise that the person is in pain and you do your best to alleviate the person’s sufferings. Indian society is hierarchical in nature so its duty of the civil servants to uplift those who were at the bottom of the development table.
  • Civil servants help to bring socio-economic change in the society. Compassion is important for citizen friendly governance. Social justice can’t be possible without being compassionate towards weaker section of people.

 

ELEMENTS OF COMPASSION:

Compassion entails five elements that apply to the self or others:

  • Recognising suffering
  • Understanding the universality of suffering in human experience
  • Feeling for the person suffering and emotionally connecting with their distress
  • Tolerating any uncomfortable feelings aroused (e.g., fear, disgust, distress, anger) so that we remain accepting and open to the person in their suffering
  • Acting or being motivated to act to alleviate the suffering.

 

COMPONENTS OF COMPASSION:
  • Sensitivity – Sensitive to the problems of individuals and society at large
  • Empathy – Empathetic to the issues while getting into shoes of others.
  • Motivation – Motivation to do something which is coming from inside instead of someone forcefully impose on us
  • Judgement – Non- judging attitude by looking at their problems and seeking help
  • Emotional balance – Self-control our emotions and be compassion to those who need and recognising the fake emotions of people with wrong intentions.

 

HOW TO CULTIVATE COMPASSION:
  • Self-motivation and self-lessness attitude
  • Field visits
  • Compassionate mind training
  • Mindfulness cognitive therapy
SYMPATHY EMPATHY COMPASSION
Understands others feelings without feeling at yourself Understanding others feelings by feeling personally Unconditional love applied towards others sufferings
Self – Oriented Self – Oriented – “I am Hurt too “ Look from Humanity Perspective
There is a gap between words and actual conduct Words and actions are in sync It eliminates the gap between what is desirable and what is actual conduct. It is action oriented.
It is essential for creating kindness in the society Essential for eliminating stereotypes and prejudices Essential to bring social justice
Behaving with kindness Behaves with sympathy Behaves with respecting human dignity and human rights
Example: When someone met with accident, everyone show sympathy but majority of people don’t come forward to take that person to hospital Example: Few youngsters, who faced hunger problem in their childhood formed as a team in Hyderabad and distributing to hungry kids from left out food from events Example: Good Samaritan who joins in hospital who hit with accident and even ready to donate blood if necessary

 

IMPORTANCE OF EMPATHY& COMPASSION TOWARDS WEAKER SECTIONS OF SOCIETY:
  • First and foremost, objective behind empathetic and compassionate civil servant should be to uplift the weaker sections of society, SCs, STs, children, women, people below poverty line, wanderers
  • India having so much diversity across its continent, so district administration sometimes failed to recognise intended beneficiaries. In that case, empathetic civil servant desire to help such people appreciated.
  • It creates cultural harmony and builds trust on public offices
  • Serves the purpose of “public service”, service to humanity service to god.
  • Personalities like Mother Theresa, Gandhiji always stands as role models when we talk about compassion. In administration, Shankaran, in his entire career worked for the weaker sections of society without bending any rules and regulations.

 

PREVIOUS YEAR QUESTIONS:

 

Theme Question Year
Integrity, impartiality and non-partisanship, objectivity

 

 “In looking for people to hire, you look for three qualities: integrity, intelligence and energy. And if they do not have the first, the other two will kill you.” – Warren Buffett. What do you understand by this statement in the present-day scenario? Explain. 2018
Integrity, impartiality and non-partisanship, objectivity State the three basic values, universal in nature, in the context of civil services and bring out their importance.

 

2018
Integrity, impartiality and non-partisanship, objectivity One of the tests of integrity is complete refusal to be compromised. Explain with reference to a real-life example.

 

2017
Integrity, impartiality and non-partisanship, objectivity

 

Integrity without knowledge is weak and useless, but knowledge without integrity is dangerous and dreadful. What do you understand by this statement? Explain your stand with illustrations from the modern context. 2014
Integrity, impartiality and non-partisanship, objectivity Why should impartiality and non-partisanship be considered as foundational values in public services, especially in the present-day socio-political context? Illustrate your answer with examples. 2016
Integrity, impartiality and non-partisanship, objectivity

 

There is a heavy ethical responsibility on the public servants because they occupy positions of power, handle huge amounts of public funds, and their decisions have wide-ranging impact on society and environment. What steps have you taken to improve your ethical competence to handle such responsibility? 2014
Integrity, impartiality and non-partisanship, objectivity What does ‘accountability’ mean in the context of public service? What measures can be adopted to ensure individual and collective accountability of public servants? 2014
Dedication to public service What is mean by public interest? What are the principles and procedures to be followed by the civil servants in public interest? 2018
Dedication to public service

 

Examine the relevance of the following in the context of civil service: (a) Transparency (b) Accountability (c) Fairness and justice (d) Courage of conviction (e) Spirit of service. 2017
Dedication to public service How do the virtues of trustworthiness and fortitude get manifested in public service? Explain with examples. 2015
Dedication to public service

 

What do you understand by the following terms in the context of public service? (5 terms x 3 marks each: a) Integrity b) Perseverance c) Spirit of service d) Commitment e) Courage of conviction f) Personal opinion 2014
Dedication to public service Indicate two more attributes which you consider important for public service. Justify your answer. (10 marks |100 words) 2013
Empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker sections.

 

A mere compliance with law is not enough, the public servant also has to have a well-developed sensibility to ethical issues for effective discharge of duties.” Do you agree? Explain with the help of two examples, where  (i) an act is ethically right, but not legally and (ii) an act is legally right, but not ethically. 2015
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