Ahom’s of Assam


  •          The history of Assam is the history of the confluence of the Tibeto- Burman (Sino-Tibetan), Indo-Aryan, and Austroasiatic cultures, as well as the confluence of people from the east, west and the north.
  •          The Ahoms were a Mongoloid tribe from north Burma (present day Myanmar) who had succeeded in establishing a powerful kingdom in the 13th century, and had become Hinduised in course of time. In fact, the name Assam is derived from them.
  •          They suppressed the old political system of Bhuiyans (landlords)
  •          Ahom state was dependent on forced labor called Paiks.
  •          Each village had to send a number of Paiks by rotation.
  •         Almost all male adult served in the kings army during war
  •         “Buranjisis” – the historical chronicle of Ahom’s
  •          Originally, Ahom worship their own tribal god but by 17th CE, they adopted Hinduism but they did not left their tribal culture fully.
  •          Ahom society was divided into Khel or clan.





  •         Gond lived in vast forestland mentioned as Gondawana.
  •          “Akbarnama” mention Gond kingdom in Garh Katanga.
  •          The kingdom was divided into:

Ø  Garh

Ø  Chaurasi (unit of 84 village below Garh)

Ø  Bahot (divison of Chaurasi in 12 villages)

  •         The famous queen Durgawati belong to this dynasty.




  •          Gajapati dynasty was established by Kapilendra Deva in c.1435 CE, after the fall of the last eastern Ganga king, Bhanudeva IV .
  •          “Gajapati” etymologically means a king with an army of elephants.
  •          Narsinghdeo of this dynasty constructed Konark Temple.
  •          In the middle of the 15th CE there was rise of Gajpati rulers they ruled Orissa until the end of Lodhi period.







  •         Mewar or Udaipur Kingdom was originally called Medhpaat and over time, the name Medhpath became Mewar. Interestingly, the rulers of Mewar used the title “Maharana” (Prime Minister or Custodian) instead of the typical title “Maharaja” (King).
  •          Rana Kumbha (1433-1468 AD) was the most famous ruler.
  •          Rana kumbha wrote book like Sangeet Priya, Sudha Prabandh , Rasik Priya, Kam Raja Ratisara etc.
  •          Kumbha erected a Victory Tower (Kirti Stambh) at Chittor a mark of victory of his conquests. He also consolidated the fortification of Chittor and constructed a road running through its seven doors.
  •          He was acclaimed as ‘Sangeet Shiromani’ and wrote an outstanding treatise on indian music titled Sangeet-Raj as well as other works like Sangeet Mimansa, Sangeet Ratnakar, and Sudprabhandh.
  •          In Rajatarangini (a history of Kashmir written by Kalhana in the mid- 12th century) it is stated that the valley of Kashmir was formerly a lake.
  •          Zainul Abedeen was the greatest ruler of Kashmir. He also known as Bud Shah (the Great Sultan) and as Akbar of Kashmir who was benevolent, liberal, and an enlightened ruler.
  •          He contributed to the agricultural development of Kashmir by constructing dams and canals and initiated the maintenance of the agricultural records.
  •         He also constructed “Zaina Lanka” the artificial island on the Wullur Lake.
  •          Many Sankrit works like Rajtarangini, Mahabharat were translated into Persian under him.
  •          In c.1586 CE, Akbar conquered Kashmir and made it a part of the Mughal Empire.


The Sharaqi of Jaunpuri


  •         Malik Sarwar laid the foundation of the Sharqi dynasty.
  •         Malik Muhammed Jaisi the writer of “Padmavat” was the court Poet.
  •          Jaunpur evolved a distinct architecture that is known as the Sharqi style of architecture. Jaunpur was known as the Shiraz of India. Most notable examples of Sharqi style of architecture in Jaunpur are the Atala Masjid, the Lal Darwaja Masjid, and the Jama Masjid.