• It is a unique partnership of multi agencies including UN agencies, multilateral development banks, national entities and international NGOs. The GEF Trust fund (World Bank as Trustee) is available to developing countries and countries with economies in transition.
  • It was established on the eve of 1992 Rio Earth Summit to tackle the planet’s biggest environmental issues.
  • It is a financial mechanism for five major international environmental conventions:
    1. Minamata Convention on Mercury
    2. Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants
    3. UN Framework Convention on Climate Change
    4. UN Convention on Biological Diversity
    5. UN Convention to Combat Desertification


  • CSA is an approach for developing agricultural strategies to secure sustainable food security in changing climate.
  • To balance near term food security livelihood needs a climate change mitigation and adaptation.


  • IPCC is the UN body, established by the UNEP and WMO in 1988, for assessing science related to climate change.
  • OBJECTIVE: To provide governments at all levels with scientific information that can be used to develop climate policies
  • It does not conduct any research nor does it monitor climate related data.
  • Reports published by IPCC: Assessment Report (AR) about the state of scientific, technical and socio-economic knowledge on climate change. Assessment report consists of:
    1. Contributions from each working group
    2. Synthesis report
    3. Any Special reports prepared in that assessment years
  • IPCC has so far published 5 Assessment Reports, currently preparing its 6th Assessment Cycle.
  • The three Special Reports and Methodology Report (of 6th assessment cycle) have already been produced.


  • Special Report: Global Warming of 1.5ºC
  • Special Report: Climate Change and Land (SRCCL)
  • Special Report: The Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate (SROCC)
  • Methodology Report: 2019 Refinement to the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories.


  • Green Economy is defined as low carbon, resource efficient and socially inclusive. In a green economy, growth in employment and income are driven by public and private investment into such economic activities, infrastructure and assets that allow:
  • Reduced carbon emissions and pollution
  • Enhanced energy and resource efficiency
  • Prevention of the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services.


Green Economy focuses on:


Economy and Investment + Positive social and environmental outcomes + Sustainable consumption and production + Employment and skills + Capital and Infrastructure






Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF):

  •          SCCF was established in response to guidance from the COP7 to finance projects relating to –

Ø  Adaptation, Technology transfer and Capacity building

Ø  Energy, transport, industry, agriculture, forestry, waste management and economic diversification.

Ø  Operating entity: Global Environment Facility (GEF)

  •         It is open to all vulnerable developing countries


Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF)


  •         It was designed to address the special needs of Least Developed Countries (LDCs) under the UNFCCC.
  •          It helps LDCs in preparing and implementing National Adaptation Programs of Action (NAPAs).
  •          NAPAs – They are country-driven strategies that identify the most immediate needs (such as water, agriculture, food security, health etc.) to adapt to climate change.
  •          Operating entity: GEF
Strategic Priority on Adaptation Program (SPA)


  •          SPA sought to reduce vulnerability and increase resilience to the adverse effects of climate change by targeting each of the GEF focal areas.
  •          Besides, it also encouraged cross-sectoral approaches à Biodiversity + Climate change + Ozone layer depletion + International waters + Land degradation.


  •          It is implemented with the Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs) to bridge the financing and learning gap.
  •          It is additional to existing Official Development Assistance and aims to enable countries to meet their multi-lateral development goals.
  •          2 types: Clean Technology Fund and Strategic Climate Fund




  •          It is a financial instrument under UNFCCC, discussed in Cancun Summit 2010 and finally adopted in Durban Summit 2011.
  •          GCF’s activities are aligned with the priorities of developing countries through the principle of country ownership.
  •          It aims to make an ambitious contribution to attaining the mitigation and adaptation goals of the international community.



  •          It was established to finance concrete adaptation projects and programmes in developing countries that are vulnerable to adverse effects of climate change.
  •          AF-funded projects are implemented around the world through accredited implementing entities.
  •          Established under the Kyoto Protocol of UNFCCC.
Capacity Building Initiative for Transparency (CBIT)
  •          It was created at the request of Parties to help strengthen the institutional and technical capacities of non-Annex I countries to meet the enhanced transparency requirements defined in Article 13 of the Paris Agreement.



  • It is a specialized agency of the United Nations for meteorology (weather and climate), hydrology and related geophysical sciences.
  • Established by: the ratification of the WMO Convention on 23rd March 1950 + Secretariat: Geneva, headed by the Secretary-General + Supreme Body: World Meteorological Congress (WMC).
  • WMO REPORT: State of Global Climate Report 2020.


  •          Hottest Year: 2020 will be one of the three hottest years just behind 2016 and 2019.
  •          Rise in Global Temperature: The global mean surface temperature for January-October 2020 was 1.2 degree Celsius higher than the pre-industrial baseline (1850-1900). For that period, 2020 is the second-warmest year on record.
  •          High Temperature over Ocean Surfaces: 80% of ocean areas have experienced at least one marine heat wave (MHW) so far in 2020.
  •          Global sea-level rise was also similar to 2019 value. This was mainly due to the increased melting of the ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica.
  •         Consequences: Extreme weather events such as tropical cyclones, floods, heavy rainfall and droughts were the consequence of global warming that impacted many parts of the world.



  • It is a UN’s global development network which promotes technical and investment cooperation among nations to help people build a better life for themselves.
  • Parent organisation: United Nations Economic and Social Council + Headquarter: New York + Founded: 1965
  • Sector: Development and Poverty Reduction
  • Report: Human Development Report


  • UNEA is the governing body of UN Environment Program + Headquarter – Nairobi, Kenya + Founded – June 2012, during the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, also referred to as RIO+20.
  • It is the world’s highest-level decision-making body on the environment.
  • It addresses the critical environmental challenges facing the world today.
  • The Environment Assembly meets biennially to set priorities for global environmental policies and develop international environmental law.


  • It is the leading global environmental authority that sets the global environmental agenda, promotes the coherent implementation of the environmental dimension of sustainable development within the United Nations system.
  • Founded – 5th June 1972 (Environment Day) + Founder – Maurice Strong + Headquarter – Nairobi, Kenya + Initiative – Faith for Earth Initiative
  • Mission – “To encourage, empower and engage with faith-based organizations as partners, at all levels, toward achieving the Sustainable Development Goals and fulfilling the 2030 Agenda.”