PLANNING IN INDIA

PLANNING IN INDIA

 

National Planning Committee

(1938)

  •          Indian National Congress formed this committee
  •          Subhash Chandra Bose was Congress president and was chaired by Jawaharlal Nehru
  •          Aim was to release detailed blueprint of an economic plan for independent India.
 

Bombay plan

(1944)

  •          Industrialists of Bombay including Mr. JRD Tata, GD Birla, Purshottamdas Thakurdas, Lala Shriram, Kasturbhai Lalbhai, AD Shroff, Ardeshir Dalal, & John Mathai prepared this plan.
  •          it was neglected by the political parties and by the business class due to various reasons.
 

People’s Plan

(1945)

  •         By MN Roy.
  •         This plan gave greatest priority to Agriculture.
  •          This plan was for ten years.
  •         It recommended nationalization of all agriculture and production.
Gandhian Plan

(1944)

  •         By Sri Shriman Narayan who was principal of Wardha Commercial College.
  •          Plan emphasized economic decentralization with primacy to rural development by developing cottage industries.
 

Sarvodaya Plan

(1950)

  •         By Jaiprakash Narayan inspired by Gandhian plan as
  •          well as Sarvodaya Idea of Vinoba Bhave.
  •          It emphasized on small and cotton industries and
  •          agriculture as well.
  •          Plan also stressed upon land reforms and decentralized participatory planning
Planning Commission (1950)
  •          set up by a Resolution, with Jawaharlal Nehru as the first Chairman of the Planning Commission.

 

Post-independence, India was declared to be a planned and a mixed economy with state having an active and dominant role in the economy.

 

 

 

First Five-year

Plan

  •          1951-56
  •          Based on the Harrod-Domar model.
  •          Its main focus was on the agricultural development of the country including irrigation and power projects.
  •          Targeted growth rate – 2.1 percent
  •          Achieved growth rate of 3.6% (more than its target)
 

Second Five Year Plan

  •         1956 to 1961
  •          Rapid industrialization with a focus on heavy industries and capital goods
  •          Targeted growth rate – 7.5 percent
  • ·       Achieved growth rate of 4.1%
  •          It was based on the P.C. Mahalanobis Model
 

 

Third Five Year

Plan

  •          1961 to 1966
  •          Also called ‘Gadgil Yojana’
  •          The main target of this plan was to make the economy independent and to reach the self-active position of take-off.
  •         For the first time, considered the aim of balanced, regional development.
 

Three annual plans (plan holiday)

  •          1966 to 1969.
  •          Focus was on Self-reliance.
  •          During this plan, annual plans were made and equal priority was given to agriculture & its allied sectors and the industry sector.
  •          Green revolution was ushered in this period. (1966-67).
Fourth Five Year Plan
  •          1969 to 1974
  •          Growth with stability and progressive achievement of self-reliance.
  •          Targeted growth rate – 5.7 percent
  •         Achieved growth rate of 3.3% (plan failed to achieve targeted growth rate)
 

Fifth Five Year

Plan

  •          1974 to 1979.
  •          Focus on poverty alleviation and self-reliance
  •         Targeted growth rate – 4.4 percent
  •          Achieved growth rate of 4.8% (plan was successful)
  •         This plan was terminated in 1978.
Rolling Plan
  •          1978 to 1980
  •          As a continuation of the fifth year plan
 

Sixth Five Year

Plan

  •         1980 to 1985.
  •         Targeted growth rate – 5.2 percent
  •          Achieved growth rate of 5.7% (plan was successful)
  •          Objective – poverty eradication and Employment generation.
 

Seventh Five Year Plan

  •          1985 to 1990.
  •         Objectives – emphasized on rapid food grain production, increased employment creation and productivity in general.
  •         Targeted growth rate – 5 percent
  •          Achieved growth rate of 6% (plan was successful)
Two Annual Plans 1990-91 & 1991-92
  •         Eighth Plan (1990–95) could not take off due to political situation of the country, the Fiscal imbalances and the BOP crisis.
 

 

 

Eighth Five Year

Plan

  •          1992 to 1997.
  •         Targeted growth rate – 5.6 percent
  •         Achieved growth rate of 6.8% (plan was successful)
  •          ObjectiveDevelopment of human resources i.e., employment, education, and public health.
  •         Adoption of Indicative planning in totality
  •         Narasimha Rao Govt. launched the New Economic Policies of India
  •          Rao-Manmohan Model– LPG (Liberalization, Privatization, Globalisation)
 

Ninth Five Year

Plan

  •          1997 to 2002.
  •         Targeted growth rate – 7 percent. Achieved growth rate of 5.6%
  •          Objective – “growth with justice and equity”.
  •         It was launched in the 50th year of independence of India.
 

Tenth Five Year

Plan

  •          2002 to 2007.
  •          Objective – aims to double the Per Capita Income of India in the next 10 years.
  •         Targeted growth rate – 8 percent
  •          For the first time the Plan went to set the ‘monitorable targets’ for eleven select indicators of development for the Centre as well as for the states.
Eleventh Five Year

Plan

  •          2007 to 2012.
  •         Objective – “faster and inclusive growth
Twelfth

Five Year

Plan

  •          2012 to 2017.
  •          Objective – “Faster, More Inclusive and sustainable growth”
  •          Growth rate target is 9%

 

NITI AAYOG (NATIONAL INSTITUTION FOR TRANSFORMING INDIA)
  • Government scrapped Planning commission and in its place it has introduced NITI Aayog in 2015.
  • Aim: to achieve Sustainable Development Goals and to enhance cooperative federalism by fostering the involvement of State Governments of India in the economic policy-making process using a bottom-up approach.
  • NITI Aayog composition:
  • Chairperson: Prime Minister of India as the Chairperson.
  • Governing Council comprising the Chief Ministers of all the States and Lt. Governors of Union Territories.
  • Regional Councils will be formed to address specific issues and contingencies impacting more than one state or a region. These will be formed for a specified tenure. They will be convened by the Prime Minister and will comprise of the Chief Ministers of States and Lt. Governors of Union Territories in the region. These will be chaired by the Chairperson of the NITI Aayog or his nominee.
  • Experts, specialists and practitioners with relevant domain knowledge as special invitees nominated by the Prime Minister.
  • NITI Aayog Hubs:
  • Team India Hub à acts as interface between States and Centre.
  • Knowledge and Innovation Hub à builds the think-tank acumen of NITI Aayog.
  • Initiatives by NITI Aayog:
  • “15-year road map”,
  • “7-year vision, strategy and action plan”,
  • Digital India and Atal Innovation Mission etc.