BUDDHISM AND JAINISM

BUDDHISM AND JAINISM

During later vedic period [around 5 circa B.C]. These two important religions came up with new philosophies.

 

CAUSE OF ORIGIN –
  • Expensive & complicated Vedic rituals, Superstitious beliefs, mantras confused the people.
  • The teachings of the Upanishads were highly philosophical, therefore not understood by all.
  • The rigid caste system prevalent in India generated tensions in society.
  • Desire of Vaishya to improve their social position due to the increase in trade and economic prosperity.
  • Unrest in society due to supremacy Brahmina.
  • practice of killing cows became hindrance to new agri economy.

 

BUDDHISM
  • The religion is based upon the teachings, life experiences of its founder Siddhartha Gautam, born in circa 563 BCE.
  • Buddha asked his followers to avoid the two extremes of indulgence in worldly pleasure and the practice of strict abstinence and asceticism.
  • He ascribed instead the ‘Madhyam Marg’or the middle path which was to be followed.

 

 

 

 

 

GAUTAMA BUDDHA

(563 BC-483 BC)

 

  •          He is also known as Siddharta, Sakyamuni & Tathagata
  •         Belong to Sakya Clan
  •         Father: Siddhodana
  •          Mother: Mayadevi
  •         Birth Place: Lumbini, capital of Sakya republic
  •          Teachers: Alarakama and UdrakaRamputra
  •          Enlightenment: At age of 33 under Pipal tree at Uruvella (Bodhgaya) on banks of river Niranjana (Falgu).
  •          First Sermon: Sarnath (Deer park) on Dharma Chakra Parivarthana to 5 disciples including Mahakasyapa (first disciple)
  •          Mahaparinirvana: At Kushinagar at age of 80.
 

 

 

 

 

LITERARY SOURCES:

 

  •         Ceylonese Chronicles – MAHAVAMSA by Mahanama, DEPAVAMSA and ATTAKATHA by Wattagamani.
  •          Tibetan Chronicles- DIVYAVANDANA-KALACHAKRA
  •          TRIPITAKA/ Three baskets of Buddhist scripture –
  •          SUTTAPITAKA [sutra related to Buddha and companion]
  •          VINAYPITAKA [monastic rules] and
  •          ABHIDHAMPITAKA [Doctrine and philosophy of Buddhism]
  •         JATAKA FOLKLORE [stories related to birth of Buddha]/ In Chinese they are called SADOK.
  •          MILINDAPANHA [Questions of Milinda that is greek king Meander and answers of Buddhist monk nagasena]
3 JEWELS OF BUDDHISM (TRIRATNA)
  •         Buddha, Dhamma & Sangha.

 

  • Roots of Buddism in past- Vedanta, Sankhya philosophy & Upansihada.
GREAT EVENTS OF BUDDHA’S LIFE SYMBOLS
  •          Avakranti (conception or descent)
White Elephant
  •         Jati (birth)
Lotus and Bull
  •          Mahabhinishkramana (Great Renunciation)
Horse
  •          Nirvana/ Sambodhi (enlightenment)
Bodhi tree
  •         Dharmachakra Parivarthana (first Sermon)
Wheel
  •          Mahaparinirvana (Death)
Stupa

 

 

5 TEACHINGS OF BUDDHA

[PANCHSHILA]

1.       No killing Respect for life.

2.       Abstention from theft.

3.       Abstention from sexual misconduct.

4.       Abstention from falsehood.

5.       Abstention from intoxication.

4 NOBLE TRUTHS:

‘ARYA SATYAS’

 

1.       World is full of misery (Sabbam Dukkam)

2.       Desire is a root cause of sorrow (Pratitya Samputpada)

3.       Desire can be conquered (DukhaNirodha)

4.       Desire can be conquered by following Astangika marga.

 

EIGHT-FOLD PATHS

(ASTANGIKA MARGA)

  •         The path consists of various interconnected activities related to knowledge, conduct, and meditative practices.
  •         Right view + Right intention + Right speech + Right action + Right livelihood + Right mindfulness + Right effort + Right concentration
 

FIVE PRECEPTS OR PANCHASHIL

 

  •         Buddha also established code of conduct both for the monastic order and the laymen to follow which are also known as the Five Precepts or Pancasil and refrain from them:
  •         Violence + Stealing + Sexual misconduct + Lying or gossip + Taking intoxicating substances e.g. drugs or drink.
 

 

 

 

 

THREE PITAKAS

  •          The Vinaya Pitaka consists of rules of conduct and discipline applicable to the monastic life of the monks and nuns.
  •         The Sutta Pitaka consists of the main teaching or Dhamma of Buddha. It is divided into five Nikayas or collections:

1.       Digha Nikaya

2.       Majjhima Nikaya

3.       Samyutta Nikaya

4.       Anguttara Nikaya

5.       Khuddaka Nikaya

  •          The Abhidamma Pitaka is a philosophical analysis and systematization of the teaching and the scholarly activity of the monks.
  •          Other important Buddhist texts include Divyavadana, Dipavamsa, Mahavamsa, Milind Panha etc.

 

BUDDHIST SANGHA AND ITS FEATURES:
  • The oldest prayer place in history where slaves, Insolvents, and diseased were not allowed.
  • There were 64 types of crimes called Pathimokshas, which were prohibited
  • Women were also allowed to join.
IMPORTANT BUDDHIST SCHOLARS:
  • MOGGALIPUTTA TISSA – launched ASHOKA’S dhamma campaign
  • ASVAGOSHA– wrote BUDDHACHARITA and Sanskrit drama SARIPUTRA PRAKRAN [sariputra the disciple of Buddha]
  • NAGARJUNA – Founded madhyamik school of mahayanbuddism, gave theory of SUNYAVAD’ EMPTINESS’ and important work include ‘MULAMADHYAMAKAKARIKA’
  • BUDDHAGOSH – most important commentator of Theravada, important work is VISUDDIMAGGA.
  • DHARMAKIRTI – Teacher at Nalanda, called as ‘kant of india’.

 

BODDHISATTVAS:
  • In Mahayana, Buddhism Boddhisatva is a person who can reach nirvana but delays doing so through compassion for suffering beings
  • It is similar to the concept of Incarnations in Hindu Mythology.
  • Bodhisattvas are common figures in Buddhist literature and art.

 

BODDHISATVA TRAITS
 

MAITREYA

  •          Future Buddha & Earliest bodhisattva
  •         Also known as Ajitaboddhisatva
  •         Holds a waterphial in his left hand
  •          Popular laughing Buddha is claimed to be an incarnation of maitreya.
 

SAMANTABHADRA

  •         Universal Boddhisatva
  •          associated with Meditation
  •          Manifestation is Action
 

VAJRAPANI

 

  •          Like Indra holds thunderbolt [depict power]
  •         Depicted as one of the 3 protective deities around Buddha.
  •         Other 2 – Manjusri and Avlokiteshwara
AVLOKITESVARA
  •          Kind-hearted.
  •         Manifests Buddha’s compassion.
KSHITIGARBHA

 

  •          Guardian of purgatories and children
  •          Boddhisatva of hell-beings or earth immortal beings
AMITABHA
  •          Buddha of Heaven
SADAPARIBHUTA
  •         Manifests Never disparaging spirit.
MANJUSHRI
  •          Stimulator of understanding and he holds book describing 10 paramitas
  •          Depict male boddhisatva wielding flaming sword in his left hand
AKASAGARBHA
  •          He is oundless as space
  •          Manifestation of wisdom

 

BUDDHIST COUNCILS:

 

COUNCIL VENUE CHAIRMAN PATRON KING OUTCOME
First

483 BC

Sattapani cave at Rajgriha. Mahakasyapa Ajatasatru
  •          It was held soon after the Mahaparinirvan of the Buddha.
  •          The council was held with the purpose of preserving Buddha’s teachings (Sutta) and rules for disciples. During this council, the teachings of Buddha were divided into three Pitakas.
  •          Compilation of Suttapitakaand Vinaya Pitaka by Upali
Second 383BC Vaishali Sabbakami Kalashoka
  •          Divide in Sthaviradins & Mahasangikas
Third

250 BC

Pataliputra MogaliputtaTissa Ashoka
  •          Compilation of Abhidamapittaka
Fourth

98AD

Kashmir Vasumitra & Ashvaghosa Kanishka
  •          Compilation of Mahavibhasha shastra. Divisionof Bhuddhism into Hinayana and Mahayana

 

SCHOOLS OF BUDDHISM
  • MAJOR SCHOOLS à Mahayana & Hinayana
  • OTHER SCHOOLS à Theravada, Vajrayana & Zen.

 

 

 

 

 

MAHAYANA BUDDHISM

  •          The term Mahayana is a Sanskrit word which literally means “Great Vehicle”.
  •          Sought salvation through grace & help of Buddha & Bodhisattvas.
  •          It originated in northern India and Kashmir and then spread east into Central Asia, East Asia and some areas of Southeast Asia.
  •          Believed that Buddha will be born again.
  •          Worship Buddha in idol form.                                                       
  •         Language- Sanskrit.
  •          Sub-schools Chittmatra & Madhyamaka
  •         ZEN is a subschool of Mahayana which is prevalent in china, Korea and related to Taoism.
  •          Buddhist schools embedded in China, Korea, Tibet and Japan belong to the Mahayana tradition.

 

 

 

HINAYANA BUDDHISM:

  •          Considered Lesser vehicle. Also known as Abandoned Vehicle or Defective vehicle. It believes in the original teaching of Buddha or Doctrine of elders.
  •          Followed original teachings of Buddha.
  •         Sought individual salvation through self-discipline & meditation.
  •          Buddha will never be reborn.
  •          Did not believe in Idol worship.
  •          Language- Pali language.
  •          Buddha was an intellectual, not a god.
  •          Encompasses 18 subschools.
  •          Most important – Sarvastivada, Theravadin & Sautantrika.
 

 

 

 

 

 

THERAVADA AND SARVASTIVADA:

 

  •        Theravada Buddhism is older and the more conservative of the two main divisions of Buddhism and is often referred to as the ‘traditions of the elder’
  •          Theravada is a Hinayana sect.
  •          Theravada Buddhists strive to become Arhats and gain freedom from the cycle of samsara.
  •          Sarvastivadins consider everything empirical to be impermanent, they maintain that the dharma factors are eternally existing realities.
  •          The dharmas are thought to function momentarily, producing the empirical phenomena of the world, which is illusory, but to exist outside the empirical world.
  •          Theravada Buddhism developed in Sri Lanka and subsequently spread to the rest of Southeast Asia. It is the dominant form of religion in Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, and Thailand.
 

 

VAJRAYANA:

 

  •          Vajrayana means “The Vehicle of the Thunderbolt”, also known as tantric Buddhism.
  •          This Buddhist school developed in India around 900 CE.
  •          Believed in acquiring magical power for liberation.
  •          Developed in Tibet and believes in the worship of female deities – Taras.
  •          It became popular in Eastern India, particularly Bengal and Bihar.
 

 

ZEN:

  •         It is a school of Mahayana Buddhism that originated in China during the Tang dynasty as the Chan school of Chinese Buddhism in and later developed into various schools.
  •          It spread to Japan in 7th century C.E.
  •          Meditation is the most distinctive feature of this Buddhist tradition.

 

CONTRIBUTION OF BUDDHISM:

 

 

 

RELIGIOUS AND SOCIAL SPHERE

 

  •          Stressed on ethical living rather than rituals, animal sacrifices, etc.
  •          Does not recognizes the existance of god/soul.
  •          Taught Middle path for salvation.
  •          Propagated Liberal & democratic values.
  •          Women were given equal status as men.
  •          Opposed caste and Varna system, any form of hierarchy and discrimination.
  •          The Authority of Vedas was challenged. Faith was given a rational basis.
 

 

ART AND CULTURE SPHERE

 

  •         The stupas at Sanchi, Bharhut and Gaya the chaityas and viharas.
  •         Promoted education through residential universities like those at Taxila, Nalanda and Vikramasila.
  •          The language of Pali and other local languages developed through the teachings of Buddhism.
  •         Promoted the spread of Indian culture to other parts of Asia.

 

IMPORTANT TERMS & MEANINGS RELATED TO BUDDHISM:

 

TERM MEANING
ARHATS Liberated beings
NIRVANA State of Supreme Bliss
SHEEL Refers to when a layperson leaves home to live the life of a Buddhist renunciate among a community of bhikkhus
ŚRAMAṆA One who labors, toils, or exerts themselves (for some higher or religious purpose) or “seeker, one who performs acts of austerity, ascetic.
 

UPASAMPADĀ

Refers to the rite and ritual of ascetic vetting (ordination) by which a candidate, if deemed acceptable, enters the community as Upasampadā (ordained) and authorised to undertake ascetic life.
VASSA Three-month annual retreat observed by Theravada practitioners. Taking place during the wet season, Vassa lasts for three lunar months, usually from July to October.
UPOSTHA It is a Buddhist day of observance, The Buddha taught that the Uposatha day is for “the cleansing of the defiled mind,” resulting in inner calm and joy.
PAVARANA Assembly at the end of Vassa
POSADHA Restoration of vows

 

CAUSES FOR DECLINE OF BUDDHISM:
  • Decline of Buddhist Sanghas due to violation of Buddist principles & discipline.
  • The Buddhists began to adopt Sanskrit, the language of the elite. So masses moved away.
  • The attack of Huns in 5th & 6th centuries and Turkish invaders in 12th century destroyed the monasteries.
  • Buddhism was mainly urban religion with rural India always Hindu. When Islam came to India, it impacted the urban regions & thus Buddhism.
  • Revival of Brahmanism and Division among Buddhists
  • Rajput rulers were warlike and could not follow the policy of Ahimsa.
  • Loss of Royal Patronage.

 

UNESCO’S HERITAGE SITES RELATED TO BUDDHISM:
  1. Archaeological Site of Nalanda Mahavihara at Nalanda, Bihar
  2. Buddhist Monuments at Sanchi, MP
  3. Mahabodhi Temple Complex at Bodh Gaya, Bihar
  4. Ajanta Caves Aurangabad, Maharashtra

 

NOTE: Heritage City Development Scheme (HRIDAY) and identification of 3 Buddhist circuits are some of the few initiatives by central government to harness the Buddhist pilgrims to both augment the Tourism and employment opportunities.

 

JAINISM
  • Jainism came into prominence in 6th century B.C., when Lord Mahavira propagated the religion.
  • The word ‘Jain’ is derived from jina or jaina which means the ‘Conqueror’.
  • There were 24 Tirthankaras (teachers) & the first Tirthankara was Rishabhanath or Rishabhadev.
  • The 23rd Tirthankara was Parshvanatha who was born in Varanasi.
  • The last – 24th Tirthkara was Vardhaman Mahavira.
  • The doctrine of Jaina is older than the Buddhist doctrine.

 

 

VARDHAMAN MAHAVIRA

(539-467 BC)

 

  •         Birth – Kundagrama near Vaishali. Belongs to Gnatrika Clan. Buddha and Mahavira were contemporaries.
  •         Parents – Siddhartha and Trisala (Sister of Lichchhavi chief Chetaka).
  •         He was married to Yasoda and had a daughter Anojja or Priyadarsana.
  •          Teachers – Alarakama and Udraka Ramputra.
  •         He attained Kaivalya-highest spiritual knowledge, at the age of 42 under Sal tree. Thus, he is called Mahavir, Jina Jitendriya (one who conquered his senses), Nigrantha (free from all bonds).
  •          First sermon – At Pava
  •          Died at Pava near Rajagriha at the age of 72.
  •          A symbol was associated with every Tirthankara and Mahavira’s symbol was a lion.
 

TEACHINGS OF MAHAVIRA

 

  •          Rejected authority of the Vedas & Vedic rituals.
  •          Did not belive in the existance of God.
  •         Believed in Karma & Transmission of Soul.
  •         Emphasised the equality but did not condemn varna system.
  •         Advocated a life of austerity and non-violence.
 

 

 

TENETS OF JAINISM

 

 

  •         Belief in God: Jainism recognised the existence of god but placed them lower than Jina (Mahavira).
  •          It did not condemn the varna system but attempted to mitigate the evils of the varna order and the ritualistic Vedic religion.
  •         According to Mahavira, a person is born in higher or lower varna as the consequence of the sins or the virtues in the previous birth. Thus, Jainism believes in the “transmigration of the souland the “theory of Karma.”
 

ANEKANTAVADA

 

  •          Emphasises that the ultimate truth and reality is complex, and has multiple-aspects i.e “theory of plurality”.
  •         It refers to the simultaneous acceptance of multiple, diverse, even contradictory viewpoints.
 

SYADVADA

 

  •         All judgments are conditional, holding good only in certain conditions, circumstances, or senses.
  •          Seven modes of prediction (Saptabhangi Nayavada)
  •          Syadavada literally means the method of examining different probabilities.
 

 

FIVE DOCTRINES OF JAINISM

 

  •          AHIMSA: Non-injury to a living being
  •          SATYA: Do not speak a lie
  •          ASTEYA: Do not steal
  •          APARIGRAHA: Do not acquire property
  •         BRAHMACHARYA: Observe continence
 

 

THREE JEWELS/

TRIRATNA

 

  •          It mainly aims at the attainment of liberation, for which no ritual is required.
  •         It can be attained through three principles called Three Jewels or Triratna i.e.

1.       Right Faith (Samyakdarshana)

2.       Right Knowledge (Samyakjnana)

3.       Right Action (Samyakcharita)

 

 

 

 

SPREAD OF JAINISM

  •          Through Sangha, consists of women & Men.
  •          Under the patronage of Chandragupta Maurya, Kharaveli of Kalinga and the royal dynasties of south India such as the Gangas, the Kadambas, the Chalukyas and the Rashtrkutas.
  •         When Bhadrabahu (Guru of Chandragupta Maurya) left for South India, Sthulabahu remained in the North with his followers.
  •          After Bhadrabahu returned with his follower, Jainism spilt into two sects:

1.       SWETAMBARAS: White-clad; Northerners

2.       DIGAMBARAS: Sky-clad (naked); Southerners.

 

SECTS/ SCHOOL OF JAINISM
  • Jain order has been divided into two major sects: Digambara and Svetambara. The division occurred mainly due to famine in Magadha which compelled a group led by Bhadrabahu to move South India.
  • During the 12 years famine, the group in South India stick to the strict practices while the group in Magadha adopted a more lax attitude and started wearing white clothes.
  • After the end of famine, when the Southern group came back to Magadha, the changed practices led to the division of Jainism into two sects.

 

 

 

 

DIGAMBARA

 

  •         Monks of this sect believe in complete nudity. Male monks do not wear clothes while female monks wear unstitched plain white sarees.
  •          Follow all five vows (Satya, Ahimsa, Asteya, Aparigraha and Brahmacharya).
  •          Believe women cannot achieve liberation.
  •          Bhadrabahu was an exponent of this sect.
  •          Major Sub-Sects: Mula Sangh, Bisapantha, Terapantha, Taranpantha or Samaiyapantha.
  •          Minor Sub-Sets: Gumanapantha, Totapantha.
 

 

SHVETAMBARA

 

  •          Monks wear white clothes.
  •          Follow only 4 vows (except brahmacharya).
  •          Believe women can achieve liberation.
  •          Sthulabhadra was an exponent of this sect.
  •          Major Sub-Sects: Murtipujaka, Sthanakvasi, Terapanthi

 

JAIN COUNCILS

 

COUNCIL VENUE CHAIRPERSON OUTPUT
First 300BC Patliputra Sthulabahu, Patron – Chandragupta Maurya Compilation of 12 Angas
Second 512 AD Vallabhi Devardhigani Final compilation of 12 Angas &12 upanga

 

IMPORTANT TERMS RELATED TO JAINISM
  • ASRAV- Inflow of karmas to the soul that occurs at every second in life.
  • SAMVARA– Stoppage of the influx of the material karmas into the soul consciousness.
  • NIRJARA – Shedding or removal of accumulated karmas from the atma (soul), essential for breaking free from samsara, the cycle of birth-death and rebirth, by achieving moksha, liberation. It is one of the seven fundamental principles, or Tattva in Jain philosophy.
  • SALLEKHANA– It is the religious practice of voluntarily fasting to death by gradually reducing the intake of food and liquids. Also Called Santhara.
  • KAIVALYA, also known as Kevala Jnana, means omniscience in Jainism and is roughly translated as complete understanding or supreme wisdom.

 

 

 

IMPORTANT JAIN LITERATURE AND ITS SCHOLARS

 

  •        Tha canonical jain literature is claimed to have started from ADINATH [Rishabnath] [first tirthankara]
  •         Teachings of tirthankara before mahavira was known as PURVA.
  •        Jain literature is called as JAIN AGAMAS [canonical text based on mahavira’s teaching]
  •          These agamas are further divided into – Angas, mulasutra, upangas, prakirnaka sutra, chedasutra & ulikasutras.
  •         KALPASUTRA -written by bhadrabahu. It contains biographies of jain tirthankaras.
  •        Jain literature is mainly written in Pakrit language.

 

  • AGAM OR CANONICAL LITERATURE (AGAM SUTRAS): Agam literature consists of many texts, which are the sacred books of the Jain religion + They are written in the Ardha-magadhi, a form of Prakrit language.
  • NON‑AGAM LITERATURE: Non-agam literature consists of commentary and explanation of Agam literature, and independent works, compiled by ascetics and scholars + They are written in many languages such as Prakrit, Sanskrit, Apabhramsa, Old Marathi, Rajasthani, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannad, Tamil, German, and English.

 

JAIN ARCHITECTURE
  • MANASTAMBHA: It is found in the front side of the temple, having religious importance with an ornamental pillar structure carrying the image of Tirthankar on top and on all four cardinal directions.
  • BASADIS: Jain monastic establishment or temples in Karnataka.

 

 

 

LAYANA/GUMPHAS (CAVES)

 

 

  •         Ellora Caves (Cave No. 30-35)- Maharashtra
  •          Mangi Tungi Cave- Maharashtra
  •          Gajapantha Cave- Maharashtra
  •          Udayagiri-Khandagiri Caves- Odisha
  •       Hathi-gumpha Cave- Odisha
  •         Sittanavasal Cave- Tamil Nadu
STATUES

 

  •          Gometeshwara/Bahubali Statue- Shravanabelagola, Karnataka
  •        Statue of Ahimsa (Rishabnatha)- Mangi-Tungi hills, Maharashtra
 

JAINALAYA (TEMPLE)

 

  •         Dilwara Temple- Mount Abu, Rajasthan
  •         Girnar and Palitana Temple- Gujarat
  •         Muktagiri Temple- Maharashtra

 

CONTRIBUTION OF JAINISM
  • Preached Non-violence toward all living beings.
  • Growth of Pakrit & kannda labguage. Vardhaman Mahavir preached in ‘Ardha-Magadhi’ language, the language of the common man.
  • Introduced new philosophy – syatvad.
  • Art & architecture – statue of Gometeshwar (Shramanbdlogola), temples of Khujaraho and Abu. Tiger cave of Udaigiri and Indira Sabha of Ellora.
  • Jainism contributed for the growth of trading community.

 

HOW IS JAINISM DIFFERENT FROM BUDDHISM?
  • Jainism recognisedthe existence of god while Buddhism did not.
  • Jainism does not condemnthe varna system while Buddhism does.
  • Jainism believed in the transmigration of soul i.e. reincarnationwhile Buddhism does not.
  • Buddhism prescribes a middle pathwhile Jainism advocates its followers to live the life of complete austerity.
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