• Launched in 1973 (from Jim Corbett National Park of Uttarakhand) + Centrally Sponsored
  • Objective: to protect ‘Endangered’ Tiger population from extinction by ensuring a viable population in their natural habitats.
  • Tiger is an Umbrella species.
  • The Tiger Reserves are constituted on a ‘Core-Buffer Strategy’.
  • Tiger census: conducted once in every 4 years since, 1972.
  • Tiger census uses: Pugmark technique, Camera trapping, M-STrIPES (Monitoring System for Tigers -Intensive Protection & Ecological Status) etc.
  • India achieved its ‘St. Petersburg declaration’ target by doubling Tiger population (in 2019) ahead of 2022 target
  • India it currently houses around 70% of the World’s Tiger population.


UMBRELLA SPECIES: Protection of these species indirectly protects the many other species that make up the ecological community of its habitat.






  •          The total count of Tigers has risen to 2,967 in 2018 with an increase of 741 individuals or 33% compared to 2014 census.
  •          Top 3 States: Madhya Pradesh – 526 Karnataka -524 & Uttarakhand – 442 Tigers.
  •          The Census did not record any Tigers in Buxa (West-Bengal), Palamau (Jharkhand) & Dampa (Mizoram) TRs.
The Global Tiger Initiative (GTI) 2008
  •          An initiative of the World Bank to bring global partners together to strengthen Tiger conservation.
The Petersburg Tiger Summit in 2010
  •          Leaders of 13 tiger range countries resolved to double Tiger numbers in the wild, with a popular slogan ‘Tx2’.
The 13 Tiger Range Countries


  •          India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Russia, Thailand & Vietnam [all are in Asia]




  •         CA|TS is a conservation tool that sets best practice & standards to manage Tigers.
  •          Started in 2013 + Implemented by WWF
  •          At present, only 2 sites are CA|TS compliant:

1.       Chitwan National Park in Nepal &

2.       Sikhote – Alin Nature Reserve in Russia.

Note: India became the 1st among the 13 tiger range countries to nationally adopt CA|TS.




  •          GTF is an inter-governmental international body established in 1993 + HQ: New Delhi
  •          Objective: to protect the Tigers in their habitats.


  • Launch: 1992 + Centrally Sponsored
  • IUCN status: Asian elephant: Endangered & African elephant: Vulnerable.
  • Objectives: to protect elephants, their habitat & corridors + to prevent man-animal conflict + Welfare of captive elephants.
  • It provides financial & technical support to wildlife management efforts by states.
  • The Project is being mainly implemented in 16 States: Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Orissa, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal.


Elephants are described as “Ecological Engineers” because they create & maintain ecosystems by physically changing habitats. Elephant society is matriarchal.





  •          EC are narrow strips of land that allow elephants to move from one habitat patch to another.
  •         Meghalaya has maximum Intra-state elephant corridors.
  •          Jharkhand and Odisha share maximum inter-state corridors.
  •          Maximum International corridors India shares with Bangladesh.


  •        Aims at securing 100 elephant corridors across India.
  •         It is an initiative of MoEF&CC and the Wildlife Trust of India (WTI).
  •         Started in 2003 by CITES.
  •          Objective: to measure levels and trends in the illegal hunting of elephants.





  •          Launched by the MoEF&CC and the Wildlife Trust of India (WTI) at the Elephant-8 Ministerial meeting Delhi, in 2011.
  •          E-8 countries: India, Botswana, Congo, Indonesia, Kenya, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, and Thailand.


  • A vulture is a bird of prey that scavenges on carrion + live predominantly in the tropics and subtropics.
  • Vultures, also known as nature’s cleanup crew.
  • Vultures in south Asia, mainly in India and Nepal, have declined dramatically since the early 1990s
  • Drug Diclofenac implicated as the main cause of vulture decline. Replaced by
  • Vultures die of kidney (Renal) failure caused by Diclofenac poisoning.



Action Plan for Vulture Conservation 2020 -2025:


  •          Approved by National Board for Wildlife (NBWL).
  •          To set up Vulture conservation & breeding centers at: Uttar Pradesh, Tripura, Maharashtra, Karnataka & Tamil Nadu.
  •          Establishment of at least one Vulture Safe zone in each state.
  •         Establishment of four rescue centres, in Pinjore (Haryana), Bhopal (Madhya Pradesh), Guwahati (Assam) and Hyderabad (Telangana).
Vultures found in India Out of 23 species of vultures in the world, 9 are found in India. These include:

1.       White Rumped vulture (CR– Critically Endangered)

2.       Slender billed vulture (CR)

3.       Long billed vulture (CR)

4.       Red headed vulture (CR)

5.       Egyptian vulture (Endangered)

6.       Himalayan Griffon (NT-Near Threatened)

7.       Cinereous vulture (NT)

8.       Bearded vulture (NT)

9.       Griffon Vulture (Least Concern).

The Vulture Conservation Breeding Centre (VCBC)


  •         VCBC is a joint project of the Haryana Forest Department & the Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS).
  •         Aims to save the three species of vultures from extinction:

1.       The White-backed vulture,

2.       Long-billed vulture &

3.       Slender-billed vulture.

  •         VCBC was established in 2001 with the UK Government’s ‘Darwin Initiative for the Survival of Species’ fund.


  • Launched in 2005 + supported by WWFIndia, the International Rhino Foundation (IRF).
  • Implemented by Assam State Government with the Bodo autonomous council as an active partner
  • Aim: to attain a wild population of at least 3,000 one-horned rhinos the Indian state of Assam.
  • IUCN: Vulnerable + Schedule -I WPA, 1972.


NEW DELHI DECLARATION on Asian Rhinos 2019


  •         It was signed on 2nd meeting of Asian Rhino Range Countries
  •          Objective: to conserve & review the population of the Greater one horned, Javan and Sumatran rhinos every 4 years to reassess the need for joint actions to secure their future.
  •          The 5 Asian Rhino range countries: India, Nepal, Bhutan, Malaysia, and Indonesia.
  •          Note: 3 species of Rhino: Black, Javan, & Sumatran are Critically endangered.


  • Launched in 2009 + IUCN: Vulnerable
  • Objective: to safeguard & conserve India’s unique natural heritage of high-altitude wildlife populations.
  • Most of the Snow leopards are found in China followed by Mongolia and India.
  • The Snow leopard range states / UTs of India: Jammu and Kashmir, Ladakh, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Arunachal Pradesh and Sikkim.


  • Launched in 2017 + By of India in association with UNDP, the GEF -Global Environment Facility.
  • Project duration: 6 years.
  • Objective: to secure livelihoods, conserve, restore & sustainably use Himalayan ecosystems.
  • Project Implemented in Specific Landscapes:
  1. Changthang: Jammu and Kasmir
  2. Lahaul: Pangi and Kinnaur (Himachal Pradesh)
  3. Gangotri: Govind & Darma Byans Valley (Uttarakhand)
  4. Kanchenjunga: Upper Teesta Valley (Sikkim).
  • Also, focused on the protection of snow leopard & other endangered species and their habitats in Himalayas.


  • Launched in 2005 + by MoEF&CC in association with UNDP.
  • Implemented by Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun.





  •          Launched in 1998 by WPSI – The Wildlife Protection Society of India.
  •          Objective: to reduce turtle mortality and try to safeguard the future of the Olive Ridley Sea Turtle.
  •          The Arribada:  Mass nesting of Olive Ridley Sea Turtle.
  •          Operation save kurma: The operation was conducted to combat the proliferating illegal trade of live turtles and its parts from the country to destinations abroad.


  •          Leatherback sea turtles can travel more than 10,000 miles every year.
  •          Female turtles lay their eggs at the same beach on which they were born.
  •         Green turtles can hold their breath for up to 5 hours.


  • Launched in 1975 + by GoI in association with UNDP, FAO.
  • There are three crocodilians species found in India.
  • Objectives:
  1. To protect the remaining population of crocodilians.
  2. To enhance their population through ‘rear & release’ technique.
  3. To promote captive breeding.
  • Note: Central Crocodile Breeding & Management Training Institute is located at Hyderabad, Telangana.



  • Mugger
  • Gharial
  • Saltwater
IUCN Status

  • Vulnerable
  • Critically
  • Endangered
  • Least Concern

  • Fresh
  • Fresh
  • Sea water


  • Launched in 1970s + by Govt. of Jammu & IUCN & WWF.
  • IUCN status: Critically Endangered.
  • It is found in dense riverine forests in the high valleys & mountains of the Kashmir and northern Chamba district in Himachal Pradesh.
  • In Kashmir, it’s found in the Dachigam National Park, Rajparian Wildlife Sanctuary, Overa Aru, Sind Valley, Kishtwar & Bhaderwah.
  • Note: Hangul is the only surviving species of the Asiatic member of the red deer family + Hangul society is matriarchal & only male member has antlers.


  • This involves the captive propagation of endangered species.
  • To help maintain genetic diversity, produce viable individuals to mitigate species’ extinction.
  • Important ongoing Conservation Breeding Programme in India:


Name of the Species Name of the Zoo
Red panda & Snow leopard Padmaja Naidu Himalayan Zoological Park, Darjeeling
Hoolock gibbon Biological Park, Itanagar
Clouded leopard Sepahijala Zoological Park, Agartala
Indian pangolin Nandankanan Biological Park, Bhubaneswa
Lion-tailed macaque Ariganr Anna Zoological Park, Chennai
Grey jungle fow Sri Venkateswara Zoological Park, Tirupati
Dolphin Vikramshila Gangetic Dolphin Sanctuary, Bhagalpur.
Crocodile Madras Crocodile Bank, Chennai


  • National Aquatic Animal: Ganges River Dolphin.
  • IUCN status – Endangered + included in Schedule-I of the WPA 1972 + Appendix I of CITES + Appendix II of the Convention on Migratory Species (CMS)
  • The Ganges River Dolphins can only live in freshwater, are blind and catch their prey using ultrasonic sound
  • It makes sound while breathing called the Su-Su.
  • Need for conservation: They once lived in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna & Karnaphuli-Sangu river systems of Nepal, India, and Bangladesh, but are now mostly extinct from many of its early distribution ranges.
  • In India they are distributes across 7 states: Assam, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal.


The Other Three Freshwater Dolphins:

  1. Bhulan (Indus River Dolphin): National Mammal of Pakistan and State aquatic animal of Punjab, India.
  2. Baiji: now functionally extinct from the Yangtze river in China
  3. Boto: Amazon River in Latin America.


  • Launched in 2011 in Paro Bhutan + Secretariat: Kathmandu, Nepal.
  • SAWEN is an inter-government wildlife law enforcement support body of South Asian countries.
  • Objective: to promote & co-ordinate regional co-operation for curbing illegal wildlife trade in wild flora and fauna of South Asia.
  • Member countries: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka.
  • Wildlife Crime Control Bureau is the nodal point for SAWEN in India.