|MODES OF CONSERVATION|
|Ex situ Conservation||In-situ Conservation|
|Conserving biodiversity out from their natural habitat and in special setting.||Conserving biodiversity in their natural habitats.|
|Example: Zoological park or botanical garden, wildlife safari parks, Seed banks, horticultural and recreational gardens.||Example: National parks, wildlife sanctuaries, reserved forests, protected forests, Nature reserves.|
|With the help of advanced techniques threatened species can be preserved in viable and fertile condition like cryopreservation techniques, some other example includes tissue culture, in vitro fertilization.||Sacred grooves are also considered as a part of in situ conservation.|
|Natural Extinction of Species: Continent drifting + climate change + tectonic activity + increased volcanic activity + The late Ordovician global glaciations (439 Mya) + The late Cretaceous extinction assumed to be associated with an extra-terrestrial impact.|
|PROTECTED AREAS AS PROVIDED UNDER WPA 1972|
|PARAMETER||WILDLIFE SANCTUARY||NATIONAL PARK||CONSERVATION RESERVE||COMMUNITY RESERVE||TIGER RESERVE|
|Year of formation||Wildlife protection Act (1972)||Wildlife protection Act (1972)||Amendment to the wildlife protection act in 2003||Amendment to the wildlife protection act in 2003||Amendment to the wildlife protection act in 2006 provides for statutory authority known as National tiger conservation authority (NTCA)|
|Declared by||State government by notification||State government by notification||State government after having consultations with local communities
|State government after having consultations with local communities||State government on recommendation of National tiger conservation authority (NTCA)|
|Area||Areas that are considered to be of adequate ecological, geomorphological and natural significance||Areas that are considered to be of adequate ecological, geomorphological and natural significance||These are areas owned by state government adjacent to national parks and sanctuaries for protecting the landscape, seascape and habitats.||Any community or private land provided members are agreeable to offer the land, it aims to improve socio economic conditions of the people living in such areas.||Area if critical tiger habitat and peripheral area for the purpose of tiger conservation without affecting the rights of STs or other forest dwellers.|
|Boundary Alteration||No alternation of boundaries in wildlife sanctuaries can be done without approval of the NBWL (National Board of Wildlife)||No alternation of boundaries in National park can be done without approval of the NBWL (National Board of Wildlife)||No alternation of boundaries in Tiger reserve can be done without approval of the NTCA.|
|Management||Chief wild life warden||Chief wild life warden||Conservation reserve management committee||Conservation reserve management committee||NTCA|
|Note: National park enjoy greater degree of protection than sanctuaries. Grazing of livestock etc. are prohibited in national park but they are regulated in sanctuaries. Wildlife sanctuaries can be created for particular species but NP is not focused on particular species.|
|NATIONAL WILD LIFE ACTION PLAN|
- By Environment Ministry.
- Objective: preservation genetic diversity & sustainable development.
- Plan periods:
- 1983 to 2001 (1st Plan)
- 2002 to 2016 (2nd Plan)
- 2017-2031 (3rd Plan)
- The Third Wildlife Action Plan was drafted by JC Kala committee.
- Salient features:
- This plan recognized the impact of climate change on wildlife for the 1st
- Integrates climate change mitigation actions into the wildlife management.
- Special focus on habitat conservation in coastal, marine, & inland aquatic ecosystems and also the recovery of threatened species.
|NATIONAL AFFORESTATION & ECO-DEVELOPMENT BOARD (NAEB)|
- NAEB was set up in 1992 + under the MoEF&CC.
- Purpose: to promote afforestation, ecological restoration and eco-development activities in the country.
- Special attention given to the degraded forest areas and lands adjoining the protected areas as well as the ecologically fragile areas like the Western Himalayas, Aravallis, Western Ghats, etc.
|JOINT FOREST MANAGEMENT (JFM)|
- JFM recognizes the importance of local community in managing forest resources.
- It draws its powers from National Forest Policy of 1988 & the Joint Forest Management Guidelines, 1990 of the GoI.
- Under JFM, village communities are entrusted with the protection and management of nearby forests.
- Case study: Joint conservation effort with the nomadic tribe of Maldharis, (in the vicinity of Gir National Park, Gujrat) has contributed to the improvement of Lion population.
|NATIONAL BAMBOO MISSION (NBM)|
- NBM, launched in 2006-07 + under Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture (MIDH), Ministry of Agriculture.
- It is a centrally Sponsored scheme
- The Mission envisages promoting holistic growth of Bamboo sector.
- Objective: To increase the area under Bamboo plantation in non-forest Government and private lands + To harness the potential of the Bamboo crop & livelihood development.
- Launched in 1991 + by the MoEF&&CC.
- It is a voluntary labeling scheme for the identification of environment friendly products.
- Eco mark is administered by BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards)
- Objective: to create awareness among the consumers towards reducing environment impact.
- It is one of India’s earliest efforts in environmental standards (even before the 1992 Rio Summit)
|BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION & RURAL LIVELIHOOD IMPROVEMENT PROJECT (BCRLIP)|
- Assisted by the World Bank.
- Implemented by State governments + at national level the ‘Conservation and Survey Division’ of MoEF&CC oversees the project.
- Objective: to conserve Biodiversity in selected landscapes (including wildlife protected areas) & improve rural livelihood through people participation.
- The BCRLIP is the first national level attempt at linking conservation & local livelihoods on landscape scale.
|COMPREHENSIVE ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION INDEX (CEPI)|
- Developed by the CPCB (Central Pollution Control Board) in collaboration with IIT Delhi in 2009.
- CEPI is a rational number to characterize the environmental quality at a given location.
- Industrial clusters with:
- CEPI score of 70 & above are identified as Critically Polluted Areas (CPAs).
- CEPI score of above 60 & below 70 are identified as Severely Polluted Areas (SPAs).
|LIGHTING A BILLION LIVES (LaBL)|
- Launched in 2007 by, TERI – The Energy and Resources Institute.
- Aims: to replace kerosene-based lighting with cleaner, more efficient and reliable solar lighting devices in rural areas.
- LaBL works on PPP
- Implementing approach includes:
- Fee-for-service model: poor users pay only nominal daily rent.
- Loan finance model: finances to create solar entrepreneurs.
- Apart from India the initiative extended to countries like Afghanistan, Kenya, Uganda, Ethiopia, Mozambique, Myanmar etc.
|NATIONAL CLEAN ENERGY FUND|
- Created in 2010-11 using the Carbon Tax / Clean Energy Cess
- It is a Non lapsable fund + under Department of Expenditure, Ministry of Finance.
- Usage of Fund: for funding research and innovative projects (both Public & private sector) in clean energy technologies.
|MANGROVES FOR THE FUTURE (MFF)|
- Established in 2006 + MFF is a collaborative project developed by IUCN &
- It was based on the vision of former US’s President Bill Clinton to rebuild the 2004 tsunami-hit areas.
- Objective: to promote investment in coastal ecosystem conservation for sustainable development.
- Member countries: Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Maldives, Myanmar, Pakistan, Seychelles, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Viet Nam.
|NATIONAL ELECTRIC MOBILITY MISSION PLAN (NEMMP) 2020|
- NEMMP is the vision document / roadmap for the faster adoption of Electric Vehicles (EV) & their manufacturing in the country.
- Government aims to provide fiscal and monetary incentives to kick start this nascent technology.
- As part of the NEMMP 2020, Ministry of Heavy Industries formulated a Scheme viz. Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of (Hybrid &) Electric Vehicles in India (FAME India) Scheme in the year 2015.