BAHMANI KINGDOMS (c.1347- 1525 CE)

BAHMANI KINGDOMS (c.1347- 1525 CE)

  • Bahmani Kingdom was a Muslim state of the Deccan in Southern India during the medieval era in Indian History.
  • The nobles of Bahmani kingdom were categorized in two categories: Afaquis and Deccanis. Deccanis were nobles of native origin while Afaquis had foreign origin.
  • It was founded by Alauddin Hasan Bahman Shah (in 1347), also known as Hasan Gangu, revolting against the Delhi Sultanate of Muhammad bin Tughlaq.
  • Gulbarga and in later time Bidar were capital of it.
  • Bahamani kingdom acted as a cultural link between the South & the North.
  • The Kingdom stretched from north to south from the Wainganga river to Krishna and east to west from Bhongir to Daulatabad.
  • There was total 14 Bahaman Sultans.
  • The Bahmani Empire was always at war with Vijayanagara Empire for control over Deccan. Firoz shah invaded Vijaynagar and defeated Krishna Deva Raya I.
  • Ahmad Shah Wali later shifted Capital from Gulbarga to Bidar.
  • Muhammad Shah III became the sultan at the age of 9 after death of his brother Nizam Shah and Mahmud Gawan served as Prime Minister.
  • Bahmani Empire reached its zenith during the time of Mahmud Gawan who was a minister of the Empire.
  • Kalimullah was the last king of the Bahmani dynasty.






Mahmud Gawan:


  •          He was Iranian by birth and was a trader. He was granted title of Malik-ul-Tujjar (Chiefs of Merchants) by Humayun Shah.
  •          For almost 20 years he dominated the state affairs of the Bahamani. Under his leadership Bahamani kingdom saw resurgence.
  •          He divided the kingdom into eight provinces called Tarafs. Each Taraf was governed by the Tarafdar. The salary was paid in cash or assigning a Jagir.
  •         A tract of land called Khalisa was set apart for expenses of the Sultan.
  •         Introduced use of Gunpowder in war against Vijaynagar Kings.
  •         He built a college at Bidar in Persian Style architecture.
  •          Executed in 1481 by Muhammad Shah, Deccan nobles plotted against him.


After Gawan’s Execution, Bahmani kingdom disintegrated into Five Kingdoms:


  • Bahmani kingdom disintegration
    • Nizam Shahis of Ahmadnagar
    • Adil Shahis of Bijapur
    • Qutub Shahis of Golconda
    • Imad Shahis of Berar
    • Barid Shahis of Bidar


Nizam Shahis of Ahmednagar (1490-1633 AD):
  •          Founder – Ahmad Nizam Shah.
  •          It was conquered & annexed by Shah Jahan in 1633.
Adil Shahis of Bijapur

(1490-1686 AD)


  •          Founder – Yusuf Adil Shah.
  •          Famous Gol Gumbaz was built by Muhammad Adil Shah.
  •          Bijapur was conquered & annexed by Aurangzeb in 1687.

Qutub Shahis of Golconda (1518- 1687 AD):



  •          Founder – Muhammad Quli Qutub shah.
  •         He built famous Golconda fort and made it capital.
  •          Muhammad Quli Qutub Shah founded the city Hyderabad (originally known as Bhagyanagar) and also built Charminar.
  •          It was annexed by Aurangzeb in 1687.
Imad Shahis of Berar

(1490- 1574 AD)


  •          Founder – Fatullah khan Imad ul Mulk.
  •          Capital – Daulatabad
  •         Annexed by rulers of Ahmednagar.
Barid Shahis of Bidar

(1528- 1619 AD) :

  •          Founder – Ali Barid
  •          Annexed by Bijapur rulers.


  • The architecture was highly influenced by Persian architecture. They invited architects from Persia, Turkey and Arabia.
  • The Gulbarga fort & Jama Masjid in Gulbarga, Bidar Fortand Madrasa by Mahmud Gawan in Bidar, are the major architectural contributions.
  • Gol Ghumaz was built by Muhammad Adil Shah; it is famous for so called “Whispering Gallery”
  • Ibrahum Adil Shah introduced ‘Dakhini’ in place of Persian as court language.