THE DELHI SULTANATE (1206-1526AD)
THE DELHI SULTANATE (1206-1526AD)
- The period between 1206 A.D. and 1526 A.D. in India’s history is known as the Delhi Sultanate period.
- During this period of over three hundred years, five dynasties ruled in Delhi:
- Slave (1206-1290 CE)
- Khaliji (1290-1320 CE)
- Tughlaq (1320-1413 CE)
- Saiyyad (1414-1451 CE)
- Lodhis (1451-1526 CE)
|1. SLAVE DYNASTY (1206-1290 AD)|
- Qutub-ud-din Aibak Founded Slave dynasty. It is also known as Mamluk
- Aibak is considered as real founder of Muslim rule in India.
|Qutub-ud-din Aibak (1206-1210):|
- Founded First independent Turkish Kingdom in Indian & assumed the title ‘Sultan’.
- He became independent after Ghuri’s death and began his rule in 1206 A.D.
- He Made Lahore capital.
- He is Known as ‘lakh Baksh’ or giver of lakhs as he gave a lot of liberal donations.
- Aibak issued coins in gold, silver, billon and copper. He discarded carving the name of Abbasid caliph on it.
ART & ARCHITECTURE
1. Quwwat-ul-Islam (Delhi).
2. Arhai din ka Jhonpara (Ajmer)
|Aram Shah (1210):|
- Considered most incapable ruler. Thus Iltutmish (son-in-law of Aibak) was invited to Delhi à He then disposed of Aram Shah and became Sultan.
|Shamsuddin Iltutmish (1210-1236):|
- Belonged to Ilbari tribe hence named Ilbari dynasty.
- Aibak had appointed him as iqtadar of Gwalior.
- Real consolidator of Turkish rule in India and also Delhi.
- He Shifted capital from Lahore to Delhi.
- He defeated the ruler of Kwarizam.
- Introduced Arabic coinage into India. Silver tanka became a standard coin in medieval India and also issued Copper jital.
- Created a new class of ruling elite of forty powerful military leaders, the forty (Turkan-i-chahalgani).
- He nominated Raziya as his successor. Thus, the hereditary succession to Delhi Sultanate.
|Razia Sultan (1236-40):|
- 1st and only female Muslim ruler of medieval India.
- Discarded female apparel and purdah, adopted male attire, went for hunting and let army thud aroused resentment among Turkish nobles.
- She was not acceptable to Muslim theologians and nobles.
- 1240 – serious rebellion broke out in Sirhind under Altuniya (governor). Raziya with Yaqut marched to suppress, but Yaqut was murdered and Razia imprisoned. In meantime, Bahram (another son of Iltutmish) was pit to throne by Turkish nobles.
- Later Raziya while returning back to Delhi was killed on the way.
- Also known as Ulugh khan. He was one of the main architects of the Delhi Sultanate.
- According to him, the Sultan was God’s shadow on earth (Zil-i-Ilahi) and recipient of divine grace (Nibyabat-i-Khudai).
- He broke the power of the Forty.
- Introduced Persian festival Nawrouz.
- Called himself Nasir-amir-ul-momin (Caliph’s right-hand man).
|2. KHALJI DYNASTY (1290-1320 AD)|
- Khalji nobles headed by Jalaldduin, overthrew the incompetent successors of Balban in 1290 & Est. Khalji dynasty.
- This event is called ‘Dynastic Revolution’ of 1290.
|Jalauddin Khalji (1290-1296 CE):|
- 1st sultan of Delhi Sultanate to have a benevolent attitude towards Hindus.
- He stated State should be based on the willing support of the governed and as majority of population was Hindu, state cannot become a truly Islamic.
- Adopted the policy of tolerance and tried to win goodwill of the nobility.
- Was murdered by his son-in-law Alauddin Khalji in 1296 and usurped throne.
|Alauddin Khalji (1296-1316 CE):|
- Was appointed as Amir-i-Tuzuk (Master of Ceremonies) and Ariz-i-Mumalik (Minister of Law) by Jalauddin Khalji.
- Jalauddin’s policy of tolerance was reversed by Alauddin Khalji; awarded harsh punishment who opposed him.
- To keep hold on nobles –He prohibited to hold festivals, marriage without permission of him, banned wines & intoxicants to avoid social gathering, reorganized spy services (Barids).
- He was first sultan who separated religion from politics. He proclaimed “Kingship knows no kinship”.
- Barani wrote book ‘Tarikh-i-Firuz Shahi.
- Patronized poets like-Amir Khusrau and Mir Hasan Dehlv.
- He adopted the title of Sikander-i-Azam and gave Amir Khusrau the title of Tuti-i-Hind (Parrot of India).
- He defeated Mongols in the battles of Jalandhar (1298), Kili (1299), Amroha (1305) and Ravi (1306).
- Malik Kafur was his slave – general. he led a series of expeditions in the southern part of India, against the Yadavas (1308), Kakatiyas (1310), Hoysalas (1311) etc.
- Amir Khusrau’s Khazain-ul-Futuh speaks about Alauddin’s conquests.
Ø Chehra – detailed description of each soldier
Ø Dagh– Branding of horse.
Land Revenue administration
Ø To enjoy the support of citizens
Ø To sustain large army with low salaries.
|3. TUGHLAQ DYNASTY (1320-1414 AD)|
Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq (1320-1325):
- Founder of Tughlaq dynasty.
- Took title: Ghazi
- 1st Sultan to start Irrigation.
- Built a strong fort called Tughlaqabad near Delhi.
- Amir Khusrau famous work “Tughlaq Nama” deals with the rise of Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq.
Mohammad Bin Tughlaq (1325-1351):
- His reign marks the zenith of the Delhi Sultanate but also saw the beginning of disintegration.
- He defeated Mongols.
- Appointed official on the basis of merit.
- Advanced secular policies. Applied justice to Ulema.
- Ibn-Batuta (native of Morocco) was his contemporary of Muhammad Tughlaq and was his envoy to China.
- He Built fort of Adilabad and the city of Jahanpanah.
- During reign 3 major kingdoms of South India emerged: Vijayanagar, Bahamani, and Madurai.
Firoz Shah Tughlaq (1351-1388):
- Adopted policy of trying to appease the nobles, army, theologians and of asserting his authority over only such areas which could be easily administered from the center.
- Appointed Khan-i-Jahan Maqbal, a Telugu Brahmin as Wazir or prime minister.
- He extended the principle of heredity to the army & nobility.
- Thus, the iqta system was not only revived, but also it was made hereditary.
- Malik Sarwar was prominent noble and had been wazir for some time. He asserted independence and assumed title of Malik-us-Sharq (lord of the east).
- Malik ruled from Jaunpur, it was called Shiraz of the east. Malik Muhammad Jaisi author of “Padmavat” lived in Jaunpur.
- To appease theologians, Firoz took following decisions:
- Prohibited practice of Muslim women going out to worship.
- Gave concessions to theologians
- Made jizya a separate tax. Earlier it was part of land revenue. Only children, women, disabled exempted.
- Erased wall paintings in his palace
- He constructed and improved several canals.
- He set up hospitals for poor called – Dar-ul-shifa.
- Established town of Hissar and Firozabad.
- Set up new departments:
- Diwan -i-Khairat – to make provisions for marriages of poor girls.
- Department for public work.
- Diwan -i-Bandagan – Department for slaves
- Introduced 2 new coins: Adha (50% Jital) and Bitch (23% Jital).
- He led two unsuccessful expeditions to Bengal. Bengal became free from the control of Delhi Sultanate.
- He developed royal factories called karkhanas in which thousands of slaves were employed.
- Imposed four taxes sanctioned by Islamic kharaj (land tax), khams (1/5 of the looted property during wars), Jizya (religious tax on the Hindus), and Zakat (2½per cent of the income of the Muslims which was spent for the welfare of Muslim subjects and their religion).
- He was first Sultan to impose Sharb (irrigation tax).
Nasiruddin Muhammad (1390-1398):
- He was the last ruler of Tughlaq dynasty.
- Taimur’s invasion (1398) during his reign weakened the sultanate.
- When Timur entered Delhi there was no opposition. He withdrew from India in 1399.
- Delhi sultanate disintegrated towards the beginning of 15th century and no of independent states set up. E.g. Malwa and Gujarat etc.
- Tughlaq empire came to end in 1412.
|4. SAIYYAD DYNASTY (1414-1450 AD)|
Khizr Khan (1414-1421):
- Before his departure from India, Timur appointed Khizr Khan as Governor of Multan.
- He captured Delhi and founded the Sayyid dynasty in 1414.
- He died in 1421 and was succeeded by, Mubarak Shah (1421-1433 CE). Muhammad Shah (1434-1443 CE).
- Next ruler Alauddin Alam Shah (1445-1451) was the weakest of the Sayyid princes. He handed over the throne to Buhlul Lodi and retired to Badaun.
|5. LODHI DYNASTY (1451-1526 AD)|
- The Lodi dynastywas an Afghan dynasty
- It was the fifth and final dynastyof the Delhi Sultanate, and was founded by Bahlul Khan Lodi. Sikandar Lodi succeeded him.
Sikandar Lodi (1489-1517):
- He was contemporary of Mahmud Begarha of Gujrat and Rana Sanga of Mewar.
- He founded city Agra and transferred capital from Delhi to Agra.
- He abolished the octroi duty on grains and established a new measurement of the yard called the Gaz-i-Sikandari.
- Sikandar was orthodox and a bigot king. he reimposed the Jizya on Hindus.
- He was a poet of repute, composed under the pen-name of Gulruk.
- Sikandar Lodi was succeeded by his son Ibrahim Lodi.
Ibrahim Lodi (1517-1526):
- He was the last Lodi Sultan of Delhi.
- Ibrahim was defeated in 1526 at the Battle of Panipat.
- This marked the end of the Lodi Dynasty and the rise of the Mughal Empire in India
India Under Delhi Sultanate.
|IMPORTANT TERMS & MEANING|
- Zimmi – Protected people under Muslim Rule.
- Zawabit – Sultan’s own regulations to supplement Muslim law.
- Jahandari– Secular consideration
- Tughlaq Nama, Tarik-i-Alai, Ashiqa à Amir Khusro
- Git Govinda à Jaydeva
- Hammir Raso à Sarangdhara
- Fatwa-i-Jahandari à Barani
- Padmavat à Malik Muhammad Jaisi.
|OVERVIEW OF DELHI SULTANATES|
1. Iqta land – lands assigned to officials as iqtas instead of payment for their services.
2. Khalisa land – land under the direct control of the Sultan and the revenues collected were spent for the maintenance of royal court and royal household.
3. Inam land – land assigned or granted to religious leaders or religious institutions.
ART AND ARCHITECTURE
|CAUSES OF DECLINE OF DELHI SULTANATE|
Financial instability + Degeneration of Delhi Sultans + Invasion of Timur + Greed and incompetency of nobles + Defective military organisation + Vastness of empire + Poor means of communication + War of succession + Despotic and military type of government.