• Mobile communication involves transmitting voice or data using wireless radio transmission.
  • Mobile generations refer to change like mobile wireless communication network speed, technology, data capacity, frequency, latency etc.



  • 5G is the next-generation cellular technology that will provide faster and more reliable communication with ultra-low latency.
  • Latency is a measure of delay. In a network, latency measures the time it takes for some data to get to its destination across the network.



  • 4G mobile technology provides wireless mobile broadband internet access in addition to voice and other services of 3G.
  • Applications include improved web access, Internet Protocol (IP) telephony, Video Conferencing, Cloud Computing, Gaming Services, High-Definition Mobile TV etc.
  • 4G uses LTE (Long Term Evolution) technology, which allows voice & data-communication simultaneously.


Long Term Evolution Voice over Long-Term Evolution
While accessing Data it uses 4G & voice calls routed to 2G / 3G network Enables both data & voice over the same 4G network



  • Wi-Fi 6 is the sixth generation of WIFI, working on the same principal as other wireless devices- It uses radio frequencies to send signals between devices.
  • Wi-Fi is just a type of WLAN.


Key benefits of Wi-Fi CERTIFIED 6 technology:


1. Higher data rates

2. Increased capacity

3. Performance in environments with many connected devices

4. Improved power efficiency


Wi-Fi 6 caters the need of improved network connection and speed which is required for the Internet of Things (IoT).



  • Recently the Indian government approved to provide inflight Wi-Fi service.
  • It works based on any one of the following two methods:
    1. Air-to-ground Wi-Fi System: Similar to cell phone connectivity.
    2. Satellite-based Wi-Fi System



  • It is a wireless technology standard used to exchange data between fixed and mobile devices over short distances using Radio waves.
  • Bluetooth 2 is the latest version.


  • A hotspot is a physical location where people can access the Internet, via a wireless local area network (WLAN) with a router connected to an Internet service provider.



  • These are smart electronic devices designed to be worn on the user’s body.
  • Ex: Smart jewelry, Wristbands, watches etc.
  • These devices detect, analyze, and transmit information.
  • Wearable technology is evolving into an important category of the Internet of things, with life-changing applications in medicine and other fields.



  • NFC is a short-range contactless communicationtechnology based on a Radio Frequency (RF) field using a base frequency of 13.56 MHz
  • NFC-enabled devices must be either physically touching or within a few centimeters of each other for data transfer to occur.




  • RFID technology uses radio waves to passively identify a tagged object.
  • An RFID tag consists of a tiny radio transponder; a radio receiver and transmitter.
  • Unlike a barcode, the tag doesn’t need to be within the line of sight of the reader, so it may be embedded in the tracked object.


Aspect NFC RFID Bluetooth Wi-Fi
Maximum Coverage 10 cm 3 m 100 m 100 m
Frequency of operation 13.56MHz Varies 2.4GHz 2.4 – 5 GHz
Communication Bidirectional Unidirectional Bidirectional Bidirectional
Applications Card payments Toll pass, Items tracking Communication, Data transfer Wireless Internet



  • IoT is the interlinking of digital devices, people, machines, appliances, & other objects with one another through wireless networks.
  • It allows machines & people to be connected and communicate as well.
  • IoT Applications are many including works of daily life, Industry, Agriculture, Healthcare, Transportation, Governance etc.


IoT and India

  • IoT is part of Digital India mission.
  • The National Digital Communications Policy, 2018 to aid its development.
  • 100% FDI is allowed in the Telecom sector.
  • The government has set a target of USD 15 billion for the IoT market by the year 2020. This would be 5 to 6% of the global IoT industry.



  • AI refers to the simulation of human intelligencein machines that are programmed to think like humans and mimic their actions.
  • AI is a self, adaptive learning
  • Applications: Industrial automation, Space science, self-driven cars, Healthcare sector, weather forecasting etc.



· According to the ‘Global AI Report’ 2019, AI will add 957 billion dollars to India’s GDP by the year 2035 boosting India’s annual growth by 1.3% points.

· India stood at the 9th position in terms of the number of AI specialists working.

· The US, China & the UK topped the list.

Steps were taken by the Government

· In 2018-19 budget, the government-mandated NITI Aayog to establish the National Program on AI

· AIRAWAT – Artificial Intelligence Research, Analytics and Knowledge Assimilation Platform by NITI Aayog.

· National Strategy for AI, 2018 focuses on 5 sectors:

1. Healthcare

2. Agriculture

3. Education

4. Smart Cities & Infrastructure

5. Smart Mobility and Transportation.

National Artificial Intelligence Portal

· A joint initiative of National e-Governance Division of Ministry of Electronics and IT and NASSCOM.

· It will work as a one-stop digital platform for AI-related developments in India

RAISE (Responsible AI for Social Empowerment) 2020 · Organized by Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) to use AI for Social Empowerment.



  • Theseare large systems that are specifically designed to solve complex scientific & industrial challenges.
  • The performance of a supercomputer is measured in Floating-Point Operations per Second (FLOPS).
  • The top five Supercomputers in the world:
    1. Fugaku (Japan)
    2. Summit (USA)
    3. Sierra (USA)
    4. Sunway Taihu Light (China)
    5. Tianhe-2 (China)
  • India has 4 supercomputers in the list of world’s top 500 supercomputers with Pratyush & Mihir being the fastest super-computers in India.
  • Application areas: Climate Modeling, Computational Biology, Atomic Energy Simulations, National Defence, Disaster management etc.



  • Launched in 2015
  • NSM is jointly steered by the MeitY and Department of S&T (DST) &
  • Implemented by the Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC), Pune & the IISc, Bengaluru.
  • Objective: to connect national academic and R&D institutions with a grid of over 70 high-performance computing facilities.
  • These will be networked on the ‘National Supercomputing Grid’ over theNational Knowledge Network (NKN).




· ParamShivay: India’s first supercomputer was installed in IIT (BHU), followed by Param Shakti and Param Brahma at IIT-Kharagpur& IISER, Pune, respectively.

· Rudra: an indigenous server.

· SHAKTI: India’s first indigenously developed microprocessor (by, IIT Madras)



  • Quantum computersare machines that use the properties of quantum physics to store data and perform computations.
  • A classical computer performs operations using classical bits, which can be either 0 or 1.
  • Quantum computer uses quantum bits or Qubits, which can be both 0 and 1 at the same time.
  • Major advantages: Faster, Accurate, & Energy efficient.



  • There are no quantum computers in India yet.
  • In 2018, the Department of Science & Technology unveiled a programme called Quantum-Enabled Science & Technology (QuST) to accelerate research on Quantum computing.
  • SYCAMORE: is Google’s Quantum Computer, which recently claimed Quantum Supremacy.
  • It reportedly did a task in 200 seconds that would have taken a supercomputer 10,000 years to complete.
  • Quantum Supremacy: refers to quantum computers being able to solve a problem that a classical computer cannot.



  • API: is a computing interface that defines interactions between multiple software intermediaries.
  • Open API is a publicly available Application Programming Interface (API) that provides developers with programmatic access to a proprietary software application or web service. Example: Aarogya Setu
  • Swagger is one of the tools to implement Open API specification.


API Web Services
Not every API is a web service Every web service is an API
Can be online or offline Online
Easy to hack More secure



  • The Deep Web is that part of the Internet which cannot be accessed through traditional search engines like Google or Yahoo.
  • It is used to provide access to a specific group of people.
  • The Dark Net is a part of the Deep web in which, content is kept in an encrypted form or deliberately hidden.
  • This content is accessible only by special software like TOR (The Onion Ring) or I2P (Invisible Internet Project).



  • It is a method of transmitting data/information in the form of light.
  • OFC works based on Total Internal Reflection (TIR) of light.
  • Examples of TIR: Diamond, Mirage.
  • Total Internal Reflection (TIR) occurs when the light rays travel from a more optically denser medium to a less optically denser medium.


Conditions for TIR to occur:

  • The angle of incidence must be greater than the critical angle.
  • The light ray moves from a denser medium to less dense medium.



  • Andaman and Nicobar Islands connected with submarine OFC (from mainland Chennai) recently.
  • Submarine optical fiber cable to 11 islands of Lakshadweep with Kochi by 2023.
  • Dark Fiber: It is an unused optical fiber that has been laid but currently not used for communication.



‘Direct To Home’ service ‘Over The Top’ service
Digital satellite service for Television content on-demand via the internet
Requires dedicated set-up like an antenna, cable broadcast Compatible with multiple devices. Requires an only internet connection.
Content is more social Content is very personal
Ex: Dish TV, D2H Ex: Netflix, Zee5



  • In November 2020, the government has brought “Over the Top” (OTT) platforms under the ambit of Ministry of Information and Broadcasting.
  • Currently, no law or autonomous body is governing digital content.
  • Self-regulatory code: Drafted in January 2019 by 8 OTT service providers to self-regulate content on their platforms.


Bandwidth Throttling:

  • It is Intentionally slowing or lowering speed of an internet service by an internet service provider (ISP).
  • It is a reactive measure in communication networks to regulate network traffic and minimize bandwidth congestion.



  • It keeps the internet free & open.
  • Also, enables anyone to share and access information of their choosing without interference.
  • India is committed to the principles of Net Neutrality.
  • It firmly rejected Facebook’s ‘org’ or ‘Free basics’, Barthi Airtel’s ‘Airtel Zero’ etc., in India.
  • Prohibition of Discriminatory Tariffs for Data Services Regulations’, 2016 by Telecom and Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) prohibit ‘Telecom Service Providers’ from charging different tariffs from consumers for accessing different services



Cloud computing is the delivery of the different services through the internet. These resources include tools and applications like data storage, servers, databases, networking and software.



  • Edge computing is a distributed information technology architecture in which client data is processed at the periphery of the network
  • Data is analyzed locally.


Cloud Computing Edge Computing
Computation is not done at the source Computation is done near-source
Preferred to process normal data Preferred to process time-sensitive data.
Latency is more Reduced latency
Less secure More secure




  • Big Data constitute a large volume of structured or unstructured data.
  • Big data are so huge that the traditional data processing system is inadequate to process.
  • Data mining is a process used to extract usable data from a larger set of any raw data
  • By analyzing this data, a useful decision can be made in various cases such as:
    1. Tracking Customer Spending Habit, Shopping Behavior
    2. Smart Traffic System
    3. Auto Driving Car
    4. Virtual Personal Assistants
    5. Internet of Things etc.


  • Blockchain technology is a structure that stores transactional records (also known as block), of the public in several databases, known as the “chain”, in a network connected through Peer-to-peer(P2P) nodes.
  • This storage is referred as ‘digital ledger’.
  • Every transaction in this ledger(storage) is authorized by digital signature of owner, which authenticates the transaction and save it from any tampering.
  • Blockchain Key characteristic features include decentralization, persistency, and anonymity.
  • Blockchain technology discards the need for any third-party or central authority for peer-to-peer



  • National Informatics Centre (NIC) has set up the Centre of Excellence (CoE) in Blockchain Technology in Bengaluru, Karnataka.
  • National Mission on Interdisciplinary Cyber-Physical Systems (NM-ICPS) intended to develop AI, IoT, Blockchain technologies in India.



  • A cryptocurrency is a digital/virtual currency created and stored using Blockchain technology.
  • Examples: Bitcoin, Libra (by Facebook), Ethereum etc.,
  • In many countries, cryptocurrency is unregulated & they are not a legal tender payment system.



· Difficult to counterfeit as compared to hard currency.

· Less/Nil transaction fee



· A high potential of being an investment fraud (Ponzi scheme).

· Anonymous nature makes it suitable for illegal activities.

· Energy consuming

· Undermines the macroeconomic and financial stability of the country.



  • Yet they are not legal in India.
  • In 2017-18 Dinesh Sharma Committee & Subhash Chandra Garg committee suggested the Government to ban it.
  • In 2018 RBI circular directed all Banks, Financial service providers to stop any relation with Cryptocurrency.


Banning of Cryptocurrency& Regulation of Official Digital Currency Bill, 2019

  • The draft Bill seeks to prohibit mining, holding, selling, trade, issuance, disposal or use of cryptocurrency in the country.
  • In 2020, the Supreme Court has set aside RBI’s 2018 circular banning regulated financial institutions from trading in cryptocurrency.



  • Aimed to transform India into digital empowered society and knowledge economy.
  • It was launched in 2015 | under the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeiTY)
  • Focus Areas:
    1. To provide digital infrastructure as a source of utility to every citizen.
    2. Governance and services on demand.
    3. Digital empowerment of every citizen.


The Nine Pillars of Digital India:

· Broadband Highways

· Universal Access to Mobile Connectivity

· Public Internet Access Programme

· e-Governance: Reforming Government through Technology

· e-Kranti: Electronic Delivery of Services

· Information for All

· Electronics Manufacturing

· IT for Jobs

· Early Harvest Programmes



  • Launched in 2019
  • Objective: to provide universal & equitable access to broadband services across the country, especially in rural and remote areas by 2022.
  • To increase tower density from 0.42 to 1.0 tower per thousand of the population by 2024.
  • To develop ‘Broadband Readiness Index (BRI)’.
  • Funded by Universal Service Obligation Fund (USOF)


Broadband Readiness Index (BRI): measures the availability of digital communications infrastructure &conducive policy ecosystem within a State/UT.



  • It was launched as the ‘National Optical Fiber Network (NOFN)’in 2011 and renamed as Bharat Net Project in 2015.
  • Implemented by the Bharat Broadband Network Ltd (BBNL) a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) under the Ministry of Communications.
  • Objective: to connect all Gram Panchayats with high-speed broadband connectivity to deliver online services.



  • Cyberspace is the online world of computer networks, especially the Internet.
  • Cyber Security protects the cyberspace from the following:
    1. Cyber Attacks
    2. Damage to Cyberspace
    3. Misuse of Cyberspace
    4. Economic Espionage
  • Malware, or malicious software, is any program or file that is harmful to a computer user.











Types of Malware:


· Virus: It can execute itself and spread by infecting other programs or files.

· Worm: is a code that replicates itself without a host program.

· Trojan: It is a malicious program that is designed to appear as a legitimate program. Once installed Trojans carry out the designed functions. Ex: Event Bot is a mobile banking Trojan.

· Spyware: these are designed to spy over people/government sensitive data. Ex: Pegasus

· File less Malware: it doesn’t install anything initially, instead, it makes changes to the files that are native to OS. E.g., Astaroth.

· Adware: tracks user surfing activity, serves unwanted advertisements, erosion of user’s privacy. e.g., Fireball.

· Rootkits: gives hackers remote control of a victim’s device. E.g. Zacinlo.

· Urban legends: viral emails that includes urban legends usually warn of threat and compel recipients to forward the mails to others.

· Keyloggers: monitors users’ keystrokes. E.g. Olympic vision

· BOT is software capable of compromising the victims’ machine and using it for further malicious activities.

· RANSOMWARE: is a type of malware that threatens to publish the victim’s data or perpetually block access to it unless a ransom is paid. Ex: Maze, Locky & Wanna Cry Ransomware.

· PHISHING: is a type of cyber-attack where criminals impersonate legitimate organizations via email, text message, advertisement or other means to steal sensitive information.




CERT-IN: Indian Computer Emergency Response Team.


· Established in 2004, CERT-IN function under Department Of IT.

· Mandated under the Information Technology Amendment Act 2008to serve as the national agency in charge of cybersecurity.

· Since 2012, DG of CERT-IN is called the National Cyber Security Coordinator (NCSC)


NATIONAL CYBERSECURITY POLICY, 2013: To build secure and resilient cyberspace for citizen, businesses and Government.



· Established in 2020, under ‘Cyber and Information Security (CIS)’ division of the Ministry of Home Affairs. HQ: New Delhi.

· The I4C will assist in centralizing cybersecurity investigations, prioritize the development of response tools and bring together private companies to contain the menace.


  • Established under Information Technology Act, 2000 to secure India’s critical information infrastructure.
  • NCIIPC has broadly identified the following as ‘Critical Sectors’:
    1. Power & Energy
    2. Banking,
    3. Financial Services & Insurance
    4. Telecom
    5. Transport
    6. Government Strategic & Public Enterprises



  • It is a not-for-profit premier industry body on data protection in India.
  • It has been setup by NASSCOM.


The National Association of Software and Service Companies (NASSCOM)

  • NASSCOM is a trade association of Indian Information Technology (IT) and Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) companies.
  • Established in 1988, as a non-profit org
  • Focused on building the architecture integral to the development of the IT, BPO sector through policy advocacy.
  • This initiated a program called ‘10,000 Startups‘ in 2013



  • Data localization is a concept that the personal data of a country’s residents should be processed & stored in that country.
  • It may restrict flow entirely or allow for conditional data sharing or data mirroring (in which only a copy has to be stored in the country).



  • In 2018 RBI directed payment system providers to store entire payments data in a system only in India.
  • CLOUD (Clarifying Lawful Overseas Use of Data) Act of US seeks to de-monopolize control over data from US authorities & allows tech companies to share it with foreign governments.

General Data Protection Regulation (GPDR) of the European Union allows cross-border movement of data but requires the destination country to have stringent cyber-security rules.



  • Currently, India does not have a dedicated legal data protection framework.
  • But, some provisions under different acts protect data in general. These include the Copy Right Act 1957, IT Act 2000, & the Consume protection Act 2015 etc.,
  • In 2018, N. Srikrishna committee constituted to look after data protection provisions in India.
  • The Personal Data Protection Bill, 2019 which was introduced in Lok Sabha on this regard is yet to become an Act.



  • DSC are the digital equivalent (that is electronic format) of physical or paper certificates.
  • Certificates serve as a proof of identity of an individual.
  • DSCs can be presented electronically to prove identity, to access information or services on the Internet or to sign certain documents digitally.


Digital Quality of Life Index 2020

  • Prepared by Surfshark, a virtual private network (VPN) provider based in the British Virgin Islands
  • It seeks to rank countries on internet affordability & quality, electronic infrastructure, security and government.
  • Top 3 countries: Denmark à Sweden à Canada
  • India ranked 57 out of 85 countries.
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