General Studies-I

General Studies-I

(Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the World and Society)

  • Indian Culture – Salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.
  • Modern Indian History from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues.
  • The Freedom Struggle — its various stages and important contributors/contributions from different parts of the country.
  • Post-independence Consolidation and Reorganization within the country.
  • History of the World will include events from 18th century such as Industrial Revolution, world wars, Redrawal of National Boundaries, Colonization, Decolonization, political philosophies like Communism, Capitalism, Socialism etc.— their forms and effect on the society.
  • Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.
  • Role of Women and Women’s Organization, Population and Associated Issues, Poverty and Developmental issues, Urbanization, their problems and their remedies.
  • Effects of Globalization on Indian society.
  • Social Empowerment, Communalism, Regionalism & Secularism.
  • Salient features of World’s Physical Geography.
  • Distribution of Key Natural Resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian sub-continent); factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world (including India).
  • Important Geophysical Phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc., geographical features and their location-changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.

ART & CULTURE

Indian Culture – Salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times

Indian Art Forms

  • Indian Paintings
    • Mural Paintings
    • Miniature Paintings
    • Mughal, Rajput, Pahari Paintings
  • Dances in India
    • Classical Dance Forms
    • Folk Dance Forms
    • Modern Dance
  • Music
    • Classical Music
    • Folk Music
  • Puppetry
    • String Puppets
    • Shadow Puppets
    • Rod Puppets
    • Glove puppets
    • Modern Puppetry
    • Tribal Puppetry
  • Pottery
    • Ochre Coloured Pottery(OCP)
    • Black and Red Ware (BRW)
    • Painted Grey Ware (PGW)
    • Northern Black Polished Ware (NBPW)
    • Glazed and Unglazed Pottery
  • Drama/Theatre
    • Classical Sanskrit Theatre
    • Regional Theatre
    • Modern Theatre
  • Martial Arts
    • Thang Ta
    • Gatka
    • Kalaripayattu
    • Mallakhamb
    • Silambam
    • Other Important Martial Arts
  • Visual Art
    • Sculptures of Harappan Civilization
    • Sculptures of the Mauryan Age
    • Post-Mauryan Period
    • Jain Sculptures
    • Buddhist Sculpture
    • Gupta Sculpture
    • Medieval School of Sculpture
    • Modern Indian Sculpture
  • Bhakti & Sufi Movements
    • Spread of Bhakti and Sufi Movements
    • Women Poets of Bhakti

Literature

  • Classical Sanskrit Literature
    • Vedas, Upanishads, Puranas
    • Books written by Kalidasa, Vishakhadatta etc
  • Ancient Buddhist Literature
  • Ancient Jainism Literature
  • Early Dravidian Literature (eg Sangam Period)
  • Medieval Literature
  • Trends in Medieval Literature
  • Modern Indian Literature

Architecture

  • Harappan Architecture
  • Mauryan Architecture
  • Post-Mauryan Period Gupta Period
  • Temple Architecture
    • Nagara Style
    • Dravida Style
    • Vesara Style
  • Cave Architecture
    • Buddhist Cave
    • Jaina Caves
    • Gupta Period Caves
  • Medieval and Indo-Islamic Architecture
    • Imperial Style Delhi Sultanate
    • Provincial Style
    • Mughal Style
    • Sikh Style of Architecture
    • Rajput Architecture
    • Salient features
  • Colonial Architecture & Modern Architecture
    • European Influence
    • Indo-Saracenic Architecture
    • Post-Independence Period
  • Contribution of Buddhism & Jainism to the Development of Indian Architecture
  • Rock Cut Architecture
    • South Indian
    • Western Indian
    • Eastern Indian

 

ANCIENT HISTORY

Pre-Historic

  • Stone Age
  • Chalcolithic Age
  • Iron Age

Indus Valley Civilization (IVC)

  • Town Planning
  • Harappan Society
  • Characteristics of Major Centers
  • Harappan Art & Architecture
  • Decline of Harappan Culture

Vedic Society

  • Original Home of Aryans
  • Socio- Economic Characters of Vedic Society
  • Vedic Literature
  • Social Organization and Varna System
  • Religion and Thought

Pre-Mauryan Period

  • Mahajanpadas
  • Haryanka dynasty
  • Shishunaga dynasty
  • Nanda dynasty

Jainism and Buddhism

  • Gautam Buddha
  • Mahavira
  • Growth of Jainism and Buddhism

Mauryan Empire

  • Chandragupta and Bindusara
  • Arthasastra (Book by Kautilya)
  • Megasthenes
  • Asoka and His Successors
  • Asoka’s Inscriptions and Sites
  • Asoka’ a Dhamma
  • Mauryan. Administration, Economy, Society and Art
  • Decline of Maurya

Post-Mauryan India

  • Arrival of Indo-Greeks, Shakas, Parthians & Kushana
  • Satavahanas and Other Indigenous Dynasties
  • Schools of Art: Gandhara; Mathura; Amravati
  • Imperial Guptas
    • Political history of Guptas
    • Gupta Administration
    • Development of Art & Culture
    • Age of Golden age
    • Economic Conditions
    • Urban centres in Gupta period
  • Harshavardana
    • Sources for Harsha’s Period
    • Early life of Harsha
    • Harsha’s Administration
    • Important Officials of the empire
    • Economy under Harsha
    • Huen Tsang
    • Society
    • Religion
  • The Southern Dynasties
    • Satavahanas (230 BC TO AD 225)
    • Pallavas (AD 330–796)
    • Chalukyas (AD 535–1190)
    • Pandyas of Madurai (AD 590–1323)
    • Chola Dynasty (AD 850–1310)
    • Rashtrakutas (AD 753–973)

 

MEDIEVAL HISTORY

Delhi Sultanate

  • Slave (Ghulam) or Mamluk Dynasty
  • Khilji Dynasty
  • Tughluq dynasty
  • Sayyid Dynasty
  • Lodi dynasty

Struggle for Empire in North India (Afghans, Rajputs and Mughals)

Mughals

  • Babur
  • Humayun
  • Akbar
  • Jahangir
  • Shah Jahan
  • Aurangzeb
  • Later Mughals
  • Decline of Mughal Empire

Sur Dynasties

Maratha Empire

Deccan Sultanate

  • Ahmednagar Sultanate
  • Bijapur Sultanate
  • Berar Sultanate
  • Golconda Sultanate
  • Bidar Sultanate

 

MODERN HISTORY

Modern Indian History from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues

The Freedom Struggle — its various stages and important contributors/contributions from different parts of the country

Important Modern History Events Before 1857

  • Later Mughals
  • Regional powers in 18th Century
  • Carnatic Wars
  • Battle of Plassey & Buxar
  • Anglo-Mysore War
  • Anglo Punjab War
  • Socio-economic Condition of People
  • European Penetration of India
  • British Conquest of India
  • British Policies & Their Impact – Economic, Administrative & Socio-cultural
  • Socio-cultural Reform Movements
  • Uprisings Against British Pre-1857

Revolt of 1857

  • Causes, Leaders, and Nature of revolt of 1857
  • Suppression of revolt of 1857
  • Consequences of Revolt of 1857
  • Act of Good Governance 1858

Growth of Nationalism in India (1858-1905)

  • Political, Economic & Administrative Unification of the Country
  • Role of Western Education
  • Role of Press
  • Rediscovery of India’s Past
  • Early Political Movements
  • Formation of INC
  • Era of Moderates

Growth of Militant Nationalism & Revolutionary Activities (1905-1918)

  • Swadeshi & Boycott Movement
  • Surat Split
  • International Influence
  • Morley – Minto Reforms
  • Growth of Communalism

Beginning of Mass Nationalism (1919-1939)

  • Mahatma Gandhi – His Ideas & Leadership
  • Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms
  • Rowlatt Act, Satyagrah and Jallianwala Bagh Massacre
  • Non-cooperation & Khilafat Movement
  • Swarajists & No-Changers
  • Emergence of New Forces – Socialistic Ideas, Youth & Trade Unionism
  • Revolutionary Activity
  • Simon Commission & Nehru Report
  • Civil Disobedience Movement
  • Round Table Conferences
  • Communal Award & Poona Pact
  • Participation in Elections to Central Legislature (1934) & Provincial Assemblies (1937)
  • Government of India Act, 1935

Towards Freedom & Partition (1939-1947)

  • National Movement During World War II
  • August Offer
  • Individual Satyagraha
  • Growth of Communalism
  • Peasant Movements
  • State People’s Struggle
  • Cripps Mission
  • Quit India Movement
  • Wavell Plan
  • INA & Subhash Chandra Bose
  • Cabinet Mission
  • Nationalist Upsurge Post-World War II
  • Independence with Partition

 

POST-INDEPENDENCE INDIA

Post-independence Consolidation and Reorganization within the country

Nation Building

  • Partition and Its Aftermath
  • Integration of Princely States
    • Linguistic Regionalism in India
  • Reorganisation of States
  • Issue of Official Language
  • Tribal Consolidation
  • Regional Aspirations

Foreign Policy

  • Non-Aligned Movement
  • Panchsheel
  • Wars with Pakistan & China
  • Nuclear Policy

Economy

  • Planned Development
  • Green Revolution, Operation Flood & Cooperatives
  • Agrarian & Land Reforms
  • Industrial Reforms
  • LPG Reforms

Polity

  • Era of One-Party Dominance
  • Emergence of Opposition Parties
  • Emergency: Crisis of Democratic Order
  • Rise of Regional Parties
  • Coalition Era

Social

  • Popular Movements
  • Communalism
  • Indian Women Since Independence
    • Issue of Women and Evolution of Women Movement
  • Naxalism

Post-Independence Policy of Science And Technology

  • India’s Policy in the Field of the Science and Technology
  • Impact of Economic Reform on the Science and Technology in India

 

WORLD HISTORY

History of the World will include events from 18th century such as Industrial Revolution, world wars, Redrawal of National Boundaries, Colonization, Decolonization, political philosophies like Communism, Capitalism, Socialism etc.— their forms and effect on the society

Beginning of the Modern World

  • Renaissance
  • Discovery of Sea Routes
  • Reformation
  • Counter Reformation
  • Industrial Revolution
  • European Nations Settle North America
  • Rise of Slave Trade
  • American War of Independence
    • Foundation of American Colonies
    • The Independence of United States of America
    • The American Revolutionary War
    • What was the impact of American Revolution?
    • US Civil War
    • Impact of Civil War on USA
    • Global Impact of US Civil War
    • Impact on India
  • French Revolution
    • Causes
    • The revolution in France
    • France under Napoleon
    • Impact of revolution
    • Significance of revolution
  • Nationalism in Europe
    • Rise of the nation- state system
    • Unification of Italy
    • Unification of Germany
  • Rise of Capitalism, Colonialism & Imperialism
    • Colonialism
    • The age of Imperialism (1870-1914)
    • Imperialism in Asia
    • Analysis of Colonialism

World War I

  • Causes of the War
  • Scope & Course of the War
  • Russian Revolution
    • Major events in pre-revolution Russia
    • Causes
    • Course of revolution
    • Consequences
    • Aftermath of the war
    • Post-Lenin Russia
  • End of the War & Peace Treaties
  • Consequences of the War
  • League of Nations

World Between the Two Wars

  • Europe After the War – Fascism & Nazism
  • The Great Depression
  • Emergence of Soviet Union
  • Nationalist Movements in Asia & Africa
  • US as a Strong Power

World War II

  • Fascist Aggression & Response of Western Democracies
  • Outbreak of the War
  • Theatres of the War
  • US Entry into the War
  • Global Nature of the War
  • The Holocaust
  • Resistance Movements
  • After-effects of the War

Decolonialisation & Redrawal of National Boundaries

  • Europe after World War II
  • Cold War
  • Rise of Asia & Africa
  • Developments in West Asia & North Africa
  • Spread of Communism
  • Korean War
  • Vietnam War
  • Cuban Crisis
  • Collapse of Soviet Union

Concept, Types & Social Impact of Political Philosophies

  • Communism
  • Capitalism
  • Socialism

 

INDIAN SOCIETY

Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India

  • Features of Indian society
  • Diversity (Types – caste, linguistic, social and religious, race, tribe and ethnicity, culture)
  • Challenges posed by Diversity
  • Unity
  • Pluralism
  • Unity in Diversity
  • Inequality and Exclusion
  • Family System
  • Examples of above.

Role of Women and Women’s Organization

  • Women’s organizations in Indian history
  • Types of women’s organizations
  • Level of penetration
  • 19th Century Social Reform Movements and Early Women’s Organisations –
    • Agrarian Struggles and Revolt
    • Participation in Freedom Struggle
  • Women’s organization (With Examples)
  • Problems faced by women’s organizations
  • Is a larger vocal role possible and ways to achieve the same
  • Role of SHGs, Micro finance Institution

Population and Associated Issues

  • Basic Demography of India
  • Population Trends in India and their Implications
  • Causes and Effects of Over Population
  • Challenges of Population Explosion
  • Changing Age Structure of Indian Population
  • Demogarphic Dividend: Boon or Bane for India
  • Population Aging in India
  • India’s Population Policy & Initiatives

Poverty and Developmental Issues

  • Concept of Development and Poverty
  • Types of Poverty
  • Measurement of Poverty – Poverty Line
  • Causes of Poverty
  • Poverty as a Social Problem
  • Socio-economic Spread of Poverty
  • Consequences of Poverty –
    • Inequality
    • Continuation of Vicious Cycle
    • Who is worst affected by poverty?
  • Problem of Rising Urban Poverty
  • Poverty Alleviation Initiatives
  • Policy shifts from “Trickle Down” Economics to Inclusive or Pro-poor Development to Reduce Poverty
  • Relation between Poverty Reduction and Development: Poverty-Inequality-Development Nexus

Urbanization, their problems and their remedies

  • Urbanisation Trends in India and Their Implications – Demographic and Social Dimensions
  • Factors Driving Urbanisation
  • State of Service Delivery and Challeges posed by Urbanisation
  • Problems of Urban Areas
  • Social Consequences of Urbanisation
  • Impact of Urbanisation in Rural Areas
  • Urban Planning and Role of Urban Local Bodies (ULBs)
  • Reforms Required and Government Initiatives Taken So Far
  • Problems of Slums

Effects of Globalization on Indian society

  • Understanding Globalisation – Its Different Dimensions
  • Globalisation & Culture – Homogenisation vs. Glocalisation
  • Factors Driving Globalisation
  • Globalisation & India
  • Impact of Globalisation on India – Socio-cultural, economic, on women, agrarian sector etc.
  • Does Globalisation cause Poverty?

Social Empowerment

  • Which are the Socially Disadvantaged Groups?
  • Meaning and concept of social empowerment
  • Dimensions of Social Empowerment
  • Why do we need social empowerment?
  • Government Initiatives to Aide Social Empowerment
  • Empowerment in reality and India’s experience

Communalism

  • Communalism – Its Characteristics
  • Communalism in India in the Past
  • Communalism in Contemporqary India
  • Causes of Communalism
  • Consequences of Communalism
  • Measures to Control & Eradicate Communalism
  • Secularism as an Antidote to Communalism

Regionalism

  • Concept of Region & Regionalism
  • Different Forms of Regionalism
  • Regionalism in India
  • Causes of Regionalism
  • Concept of ‘Sons of Soil’
  • Consequences of Regionalism
  • Federalism & Regionalism
  • Role of Regional Parties
  • Measures to Contain Regionalism
  • Regionalism in the International Sphere

Secularism

  • Concept of Secularism
  • Indian Model of Secularism
  • Secularism in India
  • Nature & Practice of Secularism in India
  • Uniform Civil Code
  • Challenges faced by Secularism in India
  • Measures to Make India Truly Secular

 

WORLD AND INDIAN GEOGRAPHY

Salient features of World’s Physical Geography

  • Geomorphology
    • Origin & Evolution of Earth
    • Interior of the Earth
    • Distribution of Continents & Oceans
    • Plate Tectonic Theory
    • Distribution of Earthquakes & Volcanoes
    • Rocks & Rock Cycle
    • Geomorphic Processes – Endogenic & Exogenic
    • Landforms & their Evolution
    • Geological Time Scale
  • Oceanography
    • Hydrological Cycle
    • Seafloor Spreading
    • Ocean Floor Configuration
    • Temperature & Salinity of Oceans
    • Movement of Oceans – Waves, Tides, Currents
  • Climatology
    • Earth’s Atmosphere – Composition & Structure
    • Solar Radiation, Heat Budget & Temperature
    • Atmospheric Circulation & Weather Systems
    • World Climate (examples)
  • Soil Geography
    • Soil & Soil Contents
    • Process of Soil Formation
    • Soil Forming Factors
    • Types of Soils (examples)
    • Soil Erosion & Conservation

Distribution of Key Natural Resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian sub-continent)

  • Types of Resources
    • On the Basis of Origin, Ownership, Exhaustability etc.
  • Land Resources
    • Land Utilisation
    • Land Use Pattern
    • Land Degradation & Conservation
  • Forest Resources
    • Types & Distribution – Grasslands, Forests etc.
    • Causes of Depletion
    • Conservation of Forests
  • Water Resources
    • Marine & Freshwater
    • Water Scarcity & Need For Conservation
    • Integrated Water Resources Management
  • Agricultural Resources
    • Types of Farming
    • Cropping Patterns
    • Contribution to Economy, Employment & Output
    • Food Security
  • Mineral & Energy Resources
    • Classification of Minerals – Ferrous & Non-Ferrous
    • Occurrence of Minerals
    • Conservation of Minerals
    • Classification of Energy Resources – Conventional & Non-Conventional
    • Occurrence of Energy Resources
    • Conservation of Energy Resources

Factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world (including India)

  • Classification of Industries
  • Location & Distribution of the Industries on the Basis of
    • Raw Material
    • Labour
    • Market
    • Capital
    • Land
    • Grants & Financial Incentives
    • Power
    • Transport
    • Water
    • Communication
  • Distribution of Major Industries – Iron & Steel, IT, Cotton Textile
  • Agglomeration & Footloose Industries

Important Geophysical Phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc., geographical features and their location-changes in critical geographical features (including Water-bodies and Ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes

  • Earthquakes
    • Why Does Earth Shake?
    • Earthquake Waves
    • Shadow Zone
    • Types of Earthquake
    • Measuring Earthquake
    • Effects of Earthquake
  • Tsunami
    • What Causes Tsunami
    • Effect of Tsunami
    • Mitigating the Impact of Tsunami
  • Volcanoes
    • Types of Volcanoes
    • What Causes Volcanoes?
    • Volcanic Landforms
    • Intrusive volcanic Landforms
    • Extrusive Volcanic Landforms
    • Distribution of Volcanoes
  • Cyclone
    • Tropical Cyclones
    • Anti-Cyclone
    • Extra Tropical Cyclones
  • Factors Causing Changes in Critical Geographical Features
  • Examples of Changing Geographical Features – Melting of Ice Sheets, Desertification etc.
  • Impact of Changing Geographical Features
  • Physical Geography of India
    • Physiography of India
    • Drainage System
    • Climate
    • Soils in India
    • Natural Vegetation
  • Human Geography
    • Demography
    • Urbanization
    • Census
  • Economic Geography
    • Agriculture
    • Mineral resource
    • Energy resources
    • Industry
    • Transport and Communication
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