To prepare for Indian Polity for any competitive exam, aspirants have to know about the basics of Federal Governance. It gives an idea of all the topics important for the IAS Exam and the polity syllabus (GS-II). Federal Governance and related topics are extremely important for the UPSC Exam. This is an essential portion of the polity. As IAS aspirants, you should be thorough with the Federal Governance. This article will provide you with relevant details about the Evolution of Indian Federalism.


  • American constitution is the oldest federation- 1787 (Post American revolution)
  • Canadian constitution is federal in nature with strong centre.
  • Taking healthy part of both USA and Canadian constitution, Indian constitution is “federal in nature but unitary in spirit”
  • Residuary subject rests with centre, a model adopted by India from Canada
  • Indian federation system is based on Canadian model on account of
    • Formation – By way of disintegration.
    • Preferences – Preferred the term ‘Union’.
    • Centralising tendencies – Vesting more powers in the centre.
  • ‘Union of States’ has been preferred to ‘Federation of States’ to indicate: –
    • Indian federation is not the result of an agreement among the states.
    • States have no right to secede from the federation.
  • Indian constitution – “Indestructible union of destructible states”
  • USA constitution – “Indestructible union of indestructible states”
  • Phrase “federation” is nowhere been mentioned in constitution.
  • “India federation is a case sui generis” (i.e. unique in character).
  • “Federal character of Indian constitution” is basic feature of constitution.
  • The Indian Constitution is mainly federal with unique safeguards for enforcing national unity and growth.

“Indian Constitution avoids the tight mould of federalism and could be both unitary as well as federal according to the requirements of time and circumstances”- B. R. Ambedkar