Origin and Evolution of Fundamental Duties
To prepare for Indian Polity for any competitive exam, aspirants have to know about the basics of the Fundamental Duties. It gives an idea of all the topics important for IAS Exam and the polity syllabus (GS-II). Fundamental Duties and related topics are extremely important for the UPSC Exam. This is an essential portion of the polity. As IAS aspirants, you should be thorough with the Fundamental Duties. This article will provide you with relevant details about the Origin and Evolution of Fundamental Duties.
|ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION|
- Enumerated in Part IV(A) and consist of single Art. 51 A with 11 sub-articles.
- Originally, Constitution incorporated the duties of the State (DPSPs) only and not for citizens.
- For the first time, need and necessity of duties was felt during the internal emergency (1975–1977).
- Added by 42nd CAA 1976, on recommendations of Swaran Singh committee (Committee recommended only Eight Duties, amendment added ten duties).
- In addition, one more duty added by 86th CAA 2002 – 51A(k) = Total 11 duties.
- Duties are non-enforceable, non-justiciable in nature, parliament can implement them with legislative enactments.
- Idea of Fundamental Duties inspired from USSR constitution (Now Russia).
- Duties are applicable only to citizens of India and do not extend to foreigners.
- Japanese Constitution is the only democratic constitution in the world with a list of duties of citizens.
- Interestingly, socialist countries accords equal importance to the fundamental rights and duties of their citizens.
- Duties are much inclusive and comprehensive in spirit – Cover women, environment, tolerance, education, unity and integrity of India, Nobel ideals of national movement among others.
|Paying taxes (Recommended by Swaran Singh) and voting in elections are not included in Fundamental Duties.|