Classification of DPSPs
To prepare for Indian Polity for any competitive exam, aspirants have to know about the basics of the Directive Principle of State Policy. It gives an idea of all the topics important for IAS Exam and the polity syllabus (GS-II). Directive Principle of State Policy and related topics are extremely important for the UPSC Exam. This is an essential portion of the polity. As IAS aspirants, you should be thorough with the Directive Principle of State Policy. This article will provide you with relevant details about the Classification of DPSPs.
|CLASSIFICATION OF DPSPs|
- Directive Principles are not classified in constitution as per their underlying philosophies.
- However, they can be classified into – socialistic, Gandhian and liberal-intellectual.
- Socialistic principles –These principles contemplate the ideology of socialism and lay down the framework of a democratic socialist state. The concept envisages providing social and economic justice, so that state should achieve the optimum norms of welfare state.
- Gandhian Principles – These principles reflect the programme of reconstruction enunciated by Gandhi during the national movement. In order to fulfil the dreams and aspirations of Gandhi, some of his ideas were included in DPSP.
- Liberal- Intellectual principles – These principles inclined towards the ideology of liberalism.
|Socialistic principles||Gandhian principles||Liberal- Intellectual principles|
|Art. 38 – State to secure a social order for the promotion of welfare of the people (Added by 44th CAA 1978)
e.g. Nationalisation of life insurance (1956), the nationalisation of fourteen leading commercial banks (1969).
|Art. 40– Organisation of village panchayats. This provision was precursor of Panchayat Raj institution in India.
e.g. 73rd and 74th CAA 1992
|Art. 44– Uniform civil code for the citizens.|
|Art. 39 – Certain principles of policy to be followed by the state. Art. 39 (b) and (c) are exceptions to Art. 14 and 19.||Art. 43– (Second part only)– To promote cottage industries on an individual or co- operation basis in rural areas.
e.g. Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC), National Small Industries Corporation.
|Art. 45– Provision for early childhood care and education to children below the age of six years.(42nd CAA 1976 changed subject matter of Art 45 and added Art.21A to FR)
e.g. Right to education act 2009
|Art. 39 A– Equal justice and free legal aid. (Added by 42nd CAA 1976)
e.g. Legal Services Authorities Act (1987)
|Art. 43 B– Promotion of co-operative societies. (Added by 97th CAA 2011)
e.g. Multi-State cooperative societies act 2002.
|Art. 48- (Part two only)– To organize agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines.
e.g. providing improved agricultural inputs, seeds, fertilisers and irrigation facilities.
|Art. 41 – Right to work, education and public assistance in certain cases.
e.g. National Rural Employment Guarantee Programme (2006), Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana.
|Art.46– Promotion of educational and economic interests of SC, ST and other weaker sections (Remember Harijan)
e.g. Protection of Civil Rights Act in 1976 and the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act 1989, NCSC, NCST, National Commission for Backward Classes (NCBC), 10% reservation to the Economically Weaker Sections (EWSs).
|Art. 48A-Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wildlife. (Added by 42nd CAA 1976)
e.g. Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 and the Forest (Conservation) Act 1980, Air act, Water act.
|Art. 42- Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief.
e.g. maternity benefits act and Equal Remuneration Act
|Art. 47 (Second part only)– To prohibit the consumption of intoxicating drinks and drugs which are injurious to health
e.g. FSSAI regulation, Narcotics and psychotropic substances act 1985.
|Art.49– Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance.
e.g. Ancient and Historical Monument and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act (1951), formation of Archaeological Survey of India (ASI).
|Art. 43 (First part only)– Living wage for workers. (Living wage includes education, health and insurance etc.)
e.g. Minimum wages act
|Art. 48 (Part one only)– Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry by state.
e.g. providing improved agricultural inputs, seeds, fertilisers and irrigation facilities, Laws to prohibit the slaughter of cows
|Art. 50– Separation of judiciary from executive.
e.g. Criminal Procedure Code (1973)
|Art. 43A– Participation of workers in management of industries.(Added by 42nd CAA 1976)
E.g. Industrial disputes act,1947
|Art.51– Promotion of international peace and security
e.g. policy of non-alignment and panchsheel to promote international peace and security.
|Art. 47 (First part only) – Duty of the State to raise the level of nutrition, standard of living and improve public health.
e.g. Primary health centres, special programmes to eradicate various diseases, ICDS, Mid-Day Meal schemes.