New States and Union Territories Post 1956
To prepare for Indian Polity for any competitive exam, aspirants have to know about the basics of Union and Territories. It gives an idea of all the topics important for IAS Exam and the polity syllabus (GS-II). Union and Territories and related topics are extremely important for the UPSC Exam. This is an essential portion of the polity. As IAS aspirants, you should be thorough with the Union and Territories. This article will provide you with relevant details about the New States and Union Territories Post 1956.
|New States and Union Territories Post 1956|
Maharashtra and Gujarat – In 1960, the bilingual state of Bombay was divided into two separate states – Maharashtra (Marathi speaking people) and Gujarat (Gujarati speaking people).
- Dadra and Nagar Haveli – The Portuguese ruled this territory until its liberation in 1954. It was converted into a union territory of India by the 10th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1961.
- Goa, Daman and Diu – India acquired these three territories from the Portuguese by means of a police action in 1961. They were constituted as a UTs by the 12th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1962. Goa was conferred statehood in 1987. Consequently, Daman and Diu was made a separate union territory.
- Puducherry – The territory of Puducherry comprises the former French establishments in India known as Puducherry, Karaikal, Mahe and Yanam. It was administered as an ‘acquired territory’, till 1962 when it was made a UT by the 14th Constitutional Amendment Act.
- Nagaland – In 1963, the State of Nagaland was formed by taking the Naga Hills and Tuensang area out of the state of Assam.
- Haryana, Chandigarh – On the recommendation of the Shah Commission (1966), in 1966, the State of Punjab was bifurcate to create Haryana, and the UT of Chandigarh.
- Himachal Pradesh à In 1971, the UT of Himachal Pradesh was elevated to the status of a state of the Indian Union.
- Manipur, Tripura and Meghalaya- In 1972, the two UTs of Manipur and Tripura and the sub-state of Meghalaya got statehood and the two UTs of Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh (NEFA) came into being.
- Till 1947, Sikkim was an; Indian princely state ruled by Chogyal. In 1947, after the lapse of British paramountcy, Sikkim became a ‘protectorate’ of India.
- Indian Government assumed responsibility for the defence, external affairs and communications of Sikkim.
- The 35th Constitutional Amendment Act (1974) was enacted by the parliament. This amendment introduced a new class of statehood under the constitution by conferring on Sikkim the status of an ‘associate state’ of the Indian Union.
- For this purpose, a new Art. 2-A and a new schedule (10th Schedule) were inserted in the Constitution.
- The 36th Constitutional Amendment Act (1975) was enacted to make Sikkim a full-fledged state of the Indian Union (the 22nd state).
- This amendment amended the First and the Fourth Schedules to the Constitution and added a new Art. 371-F to provide for certain special provisions with respect to the administration of Sikkim.
- It also repealed 2-A and the 10th Schedule.
- Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh and Goa – In 1987, three new States of Mizoram (Mizoram Peace Accord 1985), Arunachal Pradesh and Goa came into being states of the Indian Union.
- Chhattisgarh, Uttarakhand and Jharkhand – In 2000, three more new States of Chhattisgarh, Uttarakhand and Jharkhand were created out of the territories of Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, respectively.
- Telangana – In 2014, the new state of Telangana came into existence as the 29th state of the Indian Union. It was carved out of the territories of Andhra Pradesh.
- Jammu & Kashmir and Ladakh:
- Till 2019, the erstwhile State of Jammu and Kashmir had its own constitution and thus enjoyed a special status by virtue of 370 of the Constitution of India.
- In 2019, this special status was abolished by a presidential order known as “The Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir) Order, 2019”.
- Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act, 2019, bifurcated the erstwhile State of Jammu and Kashmir into two separate UTs –
- UT of Jammu & Kashmir – Comprises all the districts of the erstwhile State of Jammu and Kashmir except Kargil and Leh districts
- UT of Ladakh – Kargil and Leh districts
Thus, the number of states and union territories increased from 14 and 6 in 1956 to 28 and 9 in 2019, respectively.
|FORMER UTS TRANSFORMED INTO PRESENT STATES IN INDIAN UNION|
- Goa, Diu-Daman, Puducherry, Himachal Pradesh, Manipur, Tripura, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh.
|EVALUATING LINGUISTIC REORGANIZATION OF STATES|
- Gandhi and Nehru initially were in favour of linguistic reorganization. After Nagpur session, Pradesh Congress Committee (PCC) were setup in 1920.
- After witnessing horrors of partition, Nehru had a change of heart and from an outright supporter he became staunchest critique.
- Late 1940s witnessed a resurgence for linguistic states. E.g. Sanyukta Karnataka, Maha – Gujarat and Punjab.
- Most vigorous moment was in Telgu speaking areas of Madras speaking. This movement was initially spurred by led by Swami Sitarman and later by Pottu Sriramalu. This was resulted in formation of Andhra Pradesh in 1953.
- Secular mode – Linguistic basis is more secular mode than caste of religious base.
- Better learning outcome – Linguistic provinces can provide education in mother tongue.
- Unity in diversity – Promotion and development of regional language and culture.
- Masses can participate in democratic process if language of administration is of their own.
- Efficient Administration – Multilingual state would be very difficult to administer efficiently and effectively.
- It would likely spur further such demands and given no. of languages in country.
- Regionalism – It would slow down the process of emergence of national identity and composite culture.
- Sub-nationalism – Encouraging subnational feeling which may result into Balkanization of country.
- Sub-national identity often become rallying point and a platform for voicing secular demands. E.g. Marathi vs Bihari issue.
- Small states are not always economically and financially viable. E.g. Jharkhand.
|GOI’S RESPONSE TO THE DEMANDS FOR STATES|
- Special developmental assistance and package
- Creation of an Autonomous Councils e.g. Darjeeling Gorkha Council
- Inclusion of language in eight schedule of constitution – E.g. Konkani, Bodo etc.
- Setting up Developmental Boards – E.g. Vidarbha and Saurashtra.
- Special category status.
|CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DEMAND FOR SMALL STATE|
|REASONS FOR DEMAND|
- Culture and Ethnicity – For instance, Gorkhaland out of West Bengal, Nagalim demand in North East, Bodoland in Assam.
- Better governance – E.g. proposal to split Uttar Pradesh into smaller states.
- Political reasons – E.g. some groups dominated western UP region demanding Harit Pradesh.
- Imposition of local language and culture by the state government – E.g. in West Bengal
- Economic backwardness – e.g. Telangana and Vidarbha.
- Administrative convenience – more effective and efficient.
- Smaller state is more likely to be homogenous in terms of its developmental aspirations.
- It facilitates the people participation as administration become more closer to peoples.
- Viability of small states also resonates in economic growth experience of several small state.
- Democratic Decentralisation
- Resolve the problem of identity crisis among the ethnic groups and enable them to develop their own language and culture.
- Question of defining “small state” and objective criteria for same.
- Complication of matter w.r.t allocation of finances, center – state relations.
- Would go against spirit of Vallabhai Patel – against consolidation drive.
- No guarantee of enhancing of Human development indicators (HDI)
- Would lead to more dependence on center for finances attributed to low tax base.
- Issue of economic viability – North East states are more dependent on center.
- Duplication and overlapping of administrative setup – courts, Human resources.
- If its assumed that small states jurisdiction are developmentally more efficient then such arrangement already exist in the form of local bodies and in the form of blocks. Effective, efficient utilization of these institutions and capacity building is way forward.
|NEED FOR SECOND STATE REORGANIZATION COMMISSION|
- It shall lay down sound and objective criteria for reorganization.
- Reorganization is an evolving process instead of one stop solution.
- Population in several states have become exponentially large.
- 30 years on LPG reform have altered the demographic and socio-economic realities leading to regional sentiments of neglect.
- To explore the ways to match the contemporary developmental aspirations and economic realities.
- To ensure equitable and inclusive social, economic, environmental growth.
|ILLUSTRATIVE LIST OF DEMANDS FOR INDEPENDENT STATES|
- Uttar Pradesh – Bundelkhand
- Maharashtra – Vidarbha
- Bihar – Mithilanchal
- West Bengal – Gorkhaland
- Assam – Bodoland
- Delhi as state