Evolutionary History of States and UTs
To prepare for Indian Polity for any competitive exam, aspirants have to know about the basics of Union and Territories. It gives an idea of all the topics important for IAS Exam and the polity syllabus (GS-II). Union and Territories and related topics are extremely important for the UPSC Exam. This is an essential portion of the polity. As IAS aspirants, you should be thorough with the Union and Territories. This article will provide you with relevant details about the Evolutionary History of States and UTs.
|Evolutionary History of States and UTs|
|INTEGRATION OF PRINCELY STATES (SARDAR VALLABHAI PATEL WAS MAIN FORCE BEHIND)|
- India had comprised two categories of political units –
- The British provinces (under the direct rule of British government)
- The princely states (under the rule of native princes but subject to the paramountcy of the British Crown).
- The Indian Independence Act (1947) created two independent and separate dominions of India and Pakistan and gave three options to the princely states –
- Joining India
- Joining Pakistan
- Remaining independent.
- Of the 552 princely states situated within the geographical boundaries of India, 549 joined India and the remaining 3 (Hyderabad, Junagarh and Kashmir) refused to join India.
- In course of time, they were also integrated with India–
- Hyderabad by means of police action (Operation POLO)
- Junagarh by means of referendum
|UT of Delhi was redesignated as National Capital Territory (NCT) according to 69th Constitutional Amendment Act 1991.|
- Kashmir by the Instrument of Accession.
DHAR COMMISSION AND JVP COMMITTEE (1948)
- The integration of princely states with the rest of India has purely an ad hoc arrangement.
|Andhra State Act, 1953 – Formed the first linguistic state, known as the State of Andhra, by taking out the Telugu speaking areas from the State of Madras. Kurnool was the capital of Andhra State and the state high court was established at Guntur.|
- Government of India appointed the Linguistic Provinces Commission under the chairmanship ofK. Dhar in 1948 to examine the feasibility and evolution of an objective criteria.
- Committee recommended the reorganization of states on the basis of administrative convenience rather than linguistic factor.
- Disappointment with Dhar committee led to the appointment of another Linguistic Provinces Committee in 1948 consist of Jawaharlal Nehru, Vallabhai Patel and Pattabhi Sitaramayya, itself to examine the whole question afresh.
- JVP committee formally rejected language as the basis for reorganisation of states.
FAZL ALI COMMISSION (1953)
- The creation of Andhra state in 1953 intensified the demand from other regions for creation of states on linguistic basis.
- This forced the Government to appoint a three- member States Reorganisation Commission in 1953, under the of to re-examine the whole question.
- Members – Fazl Ali (chairmanship), M. Panikkar and H.N. Kunzru.
- Committee broadly accepted language as the basis of reorganisation of states.
- At same time, it rejected the theory of “one language-one state”.
- Its view was that the unity of India should be regarded as the primary consideration in any redrawing of the country’s political units.
- It identified four major factors that can be taken into account –
- Preservation and strengthening of the unity and security of the country.
- Linguistic and cultural homogeneity.
- Financial, economic and administrative considerations.
- Planning and promotion of the welfare of the people in each state as well as of the nation as a whole.